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Grouping of the more important historic bottle books.

HOME: Reference Sources

INTRODUCTION

This page is a listing of historic bottle related references which the user may consult for more information.  The listing emphasizes works that support or compliment the goals of this web site related to the dating and typology of historic bottles made between about 1800 and the mid-20th century.  Annotation is provided where possible as to the utility or pertinence of the work to the noted website goals.  Books which are purely collector price guides with little useful historical information are not emphasized here, those which have some limited utility from the perspective of this websites goals are listed for informational purposes.  Many collector guides with good quality images and/or illustrations can be of use in helping determine what type of a bottle - or bottle fragment - one has.

Unfortunately, the majority of these publications are out of print but may be found at larger libraries.  Most can also be acquired via the internet based used book sites like ABE, eBay, Amazon, and others, though they may now sell for much more than original cover price.

For a listing of additional possible references, a recent book entitled Antique Glass Bottles: Their History and Evolution 1500-1850 (Van den Bossche 2001) includes the most comprehensive worldwide bibliography of books and articles on bottles and related subjects that is to be found, having over 1100 citations.  This book is now out of print, but widely available via the internet book sites noted above.

References that are underlined are those that the author of this site possesses. 

Reference materials that are considered by the author as essential components of the information "canon" of bottle dating and identification have the authors name(s) listed in red and the entry placed in a distinctive "box" (like this one) to highlight their importance.  These publications were some of the key references used in the development of this website.

The red listings also include some books that are considered monumental works and/or the top references within their (sometimes narrow) subject field; examples include Farnsworth & Walthall's 2011 "Bottled in Illinois"  and Holabird's 2012 "Nevada History Through Glass."

NOTE: If viewers have additional references they think should be listed, have comments on those listed, or wish to do a "review" of ones not done as yet, such is welcomed though the author reserves the right to selectively use what most fits the goals of this website.  Send your additions and/or thoughts by clicking on the following link: author of this website.


Note: Please be aware that clicking on most of the links found on this page takes a user to a non-Historic Bottle Identification &  Information Website page. 
Please note that we do not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of the materials provided by other agencies or organizations. We also are not endorsing outside agencies and organizations by linking to them.

There are three hyperlinked sections to this page in the following order:

REFERENCE BOOKS INTERNET REFERENCE SITES, &
PERIODICAL & JOURNAL ARTICLES


REFERENCES BOOKS
(Including other references which are not websites or periodical/journal articles.)

Adams, John P.  1971.  Bottle Collecting in America.  New Hampshire Publishing Company, Somersworth, NH.  This book is a simple listing (with pictures) of bottles (600) with no historical information on the noted items.

Adams, Samuel H 1905.  The Great American Fraud – Articles on the Nostrum Evil and Quacks, Reprinted from Collier’s Weekly.  P. F. Collier & Son, Press of the American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.  This book is a compilation of the Samuel Adams articles in Collier’s Weekly on the evils of quackery which led to the passage of the Pure Food & Drugs Act of 1906.  This book is available online via Google Books at this URL:  http://books.google.com/books?id=tdf8na3fqNUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Great+American+Fraud

Agee, Bill. 1969.  Collecting the Cures.  Texian Press, Waco, TX.

Agee, Bill. 1973.  Collecting All Cures.  Texian Press, Waco, TX.  Both Agee books are a comprehensive listing of cure bottle with a lot of photos and good descriptions of the bottles but with very limited history (and dating) of the bottles.

The Agnew Company, Limited  1894.  Illustrated Catalogue and Prices Current of The Agnew Co., Limited, Manufacturers of Flint Glass Bottles.  Duquesne Printing and Publishing Co., Pittsburgh, PA.  A reprint of this useful bottle catalog is found in Pyne Press, 1972.  This bottle manufacturing company was located in Hulton, PA. not far from Pittsburgh.

Alther, Robert J.  1909.  1909 Price List - Robert J. Alther Manufacturers of Druggists, Chemists & Perfumers Glassware (Crystal Glass Works).  Reprinted 1970 by Pacific Grove Press, Pacific Grove, CA. This San Francisco, CA. company, though specializing in druggist & perfume bottles, sold a wide array of all types of bottles, though not nearly as “deep” an inventory as Illinois Glass Company.  Excellent reference, though this reprint is very hard to find.

American Medical Association.  1912 (first edition undated, second edition dated).  Nostrums and Quackery – Articles on the Nostrum Evil and Quackery Reprinted from The Journal of the American Medical Association.  Press of American Medical Assn., Chicago.  The is volume 1 of the famous 3 part set.  As implied by the subtitle of this book, the AMA was a strong - and successful - advocate for control and regulation of the patent medicine industry in the early 20th century.

American Medical Association.  1921.  Nostrums and Quackery – Articles on the Nostrum Evil, Quackery and Allied Matters Affecting the Public Health; Reprinted, With or Without Modifications from The Journal of the American Medical Association.  Press of American Medical Assn., Chicago.  This is volume 2 of this three part set.

American Medical Association.  1936.  Nostrums and Quackery and Pseudo Medicine.  Arthur J. Cramp M.D., LL.D., with a forward by George H. Simmons, M.D., LL.D.  Press of American Medical Association, Chicago.  The third and last volume of the set.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1983.  Designates the Owens “AR” Bottle Machine As An International Historic Engineering Landmark.  A printable pdf file on the revolutionary Owens Automatic Bottle Machine used to be available on the ASME website, though as of this writing (late 2011) the file appears to be removed and only this short overview is available:  http://www.asme.org/about-asme/history/landmarks/topics-m-z/manufacturing---1/-86-owens-ar-bottle-machine-(1912)

Anderson, Will. 1973.  The Beer Book:  An Illustrated Guide to American Breweriana.  Pyne Press, Princeton, N.J.

Andrews, David (editor).  1996.  Antique Bottles of Rhode Island.  The Little Rhody Bottle Club, Cranston, R.I.  Mostly a listing of known bottles from Rhode Island with some illustrations, but does have an excellent “research “ (historical information) section in the back covering a lot of RI companies including some with national distribution like Davis’ Pain Killer and Rumford Chemical Works.

Anonymous. 1949.  Glass Container Faults.  Industrial Publications Inc., Chicago, IL.  This small publication notes that it is "Reprinted from Ceramic Industry - (the) leading glass publication dealing with the everyday practical problems of the glass industry's executives and operating men."  This is an excellent publication on the various "faults" or problems encountered in the machine manufacture of primarily bottles set up as a "cause" (the problem) and the "cure" (the solution[s]). 

Anonymous. (Date unknown).  Portland Area Druggists 1850-1915.  Privately published.  This is a listing of Portland, Oregon druggists with the dates of business from early business directories.

Apuzzo, Robert.  1994.  Bottles of Old New York: A Pictorial Guide to Early New York City Bottles, 1680-1925.  R & L Publishing, New York.  This book is primarily a picture guide to an assortment (~150) of largely embossed bottles from New York City and vicinity (e.g. Staten Island) dominated by primarily aqua/colorless soda, beer and some druggist bottles.  There is some interesting general historical information although little specific to the illustrated bottles.

Austen, Ferol.  1971.  Poor Man’s Guide to Bottle Collecting.  Doubleday & Co., Garden City, NY.  A general guide to bottles and bottle collecting.

Axelson, R. Dean.  2000.  Dr. R. Dean Axelson’s Encyclopedia of Toronto Embossed & Etched Bottles from the Soda Water & Soft Drink Industry 1830-1940.  Canaviax Publications Ltd., Stouffville, Ontario, Canada.  Very well done book on the subject with company histories of soda companies that produced of hundreds bottles (glass & ceramic) and nice b&w photos.  An excellent source of reliable information on the dating of Canadian soda bottles styles and manufacturing related diagnostic features.

Ayers, James C.  1995.   Pepsi Cola Bottles. RJM Enterprises, Mount Airy, N.C.

Ayers, James E., William Liesenbien, Lee Fratt, and Linda Eure.  1980.  Beer Bottles from the Tucson Urban Renewal Project, Tucson, AZ.  Unpublished manuscript, Arizona State Museum.  A good reference on beer and beer bottles catalyzed by the excavation noted in the title.  This work is still pending publication – revised, updated, and annotated with footnotes by Bill Lockhart and Bill Lindsey - by the Arizona State Museum.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i) of the original work: 

This unpublished manuscript is beyond a doubt the best and most comprehensive study of beer bottles that has been undertaken to date. The authors deserve a standing ovation for every aspect of the research except their failure to publish. For several years, I encouraged Lee Fratt, one of the authors, to publish the work, but I have lost touch with her in recent years. I postponed citing the study in hopes of its publication, but it is time the work became more publicly known.

The study is divided into three untitled sections. The first of these, 60 pages in length, dealt with the history, variations, and manufacturing techniques pertinent to beer bottles. This section was well presented and is a must-read for anyone researching beer bottles. The second section (pages 1-44 plus five unnumbered pages) discussed specific manufacturing companies and the marks they used. The authors chose to present the information alphabetically by company instead of by mark. Although this makes it more difficult to locate a specific mark, the company information is condensed into a single section.

The manufacturers section is very helpful in that it corrects, contradicts, and offers alternative explanations for many of the marks, dates, and information set forth in Toulouse (see above). For example, where Toulouse offered only two possible companies for the use of the M. G. Co. mark (neither of which fit the date range for the bottle style and manufacturing techniques), Ayres and associates listed four additional possibilities and discussed their likelihood. Of great importance, the authors included specific citations for their sources. This is most helpful in any serious study of marks. The final section consisted of unnumbered pages with drawings of bottle shapes, finishes, and manufacturer’s marks. These are detailed and include heel marks along with numbers and
letters accompanying the marks, themselves. This section is helpful but is not referenced to the second section. I am certain the researchers intended to connect the two parts, but the report is incomplete in this respect. A final problem is that the references for the bottle section are not listed separately from those for the rest of the Tucson report.

Overall, this is a very important study, one that is almost essential for any subsequent research on beer bottles or any comprehensive study of bottle marks.

Baker, T. Lindsay and B. Byron Price.  1986.  Adobe Walls – The History and Archaeology of the 1874 Trading Post.  Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX.  Interesting archaeological study that includes a chapter with the descriptions and information on bottles discarded during the very short life of a firmly dated historic site in the Texas Panhandle which was destroyed by Comanche’s.

Baldwin, Joseph K.  1973.  A Collector’s Guide to Patent and Proprietary Medicine Bottles of the Nineteenth Century.  Thomas Nelson Inc., New York.  Contains a listing of over 4,000 bottles with more than 800 illustrations, though has little company history information.

Baltimore Antique Bottle Club, Inc.  2002.  Baltimore Bottle Book - Being an annotated list of 170 years of Collector Bottles of Baltimore City and Baltimore County.   The Baltimore Bottle Club, Inc., Baltimore, MD.  Comprehensive listing with limited historical information on the listed bottles.

Barbe, Walter B. and Kurt A. Reed.  2003.  The Glass Industry in Wayne County, Pennsylvania 1807-Present.  Dorflinger-Suydam Press, White Mills, PA.  This is an interesting, informative, and well illustrated book on an important 19th century glass making area in northeast Pennsylvania northwest of New York City.

Barber, Edwin A.  1900. American Glassware Old and New. David McKay & Co., Philadelphia, PA.  One of the earliest books on American bottles and glassmaking.

Barnett, George E.  1926.  Chapters on Machinery and Labor.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.  Excellent reference with the information in chapters III and IV being some of the most widely quoted information on the subject of glass and bottle making in the professional literature.

Barnett, R. E.  1987.  Western Liquor Bottles.  Maverick Publications, Bend, OR.  Largest listing of Western American liquor bottles.  Although primarily a listing and price guide, it does contain date estimates for all the bottles that appear to be quite accurate as the late Mr. Barnett is an acknowledged expert on the subject.

Baron, Stanley. 1962.  Brewed in America. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston

Barrett, William J. II.  1997.  Zanesville, Ohio and the Glass Industry – An Enduring Romance.  Privately published.  Probably the best book on the subject of glassmaking in this famous glassmaking area in the Midwest...until the recent publishing of the following book.

Barrett, J. William II.  2011.  Zanesville Glass.  Privately published.  This recent work on Zanesville (Ohio) glass manufacturers is monumental in scope.  It has exceptional historical information on all of the major producers in one of the most significant 19th and 20th century glass making regions.  The book is profusely illustrated with hundreds of photos and other illustrations of various types of bottles and glass, advertising from the companies, patents for bottle designs and machines, and much, much more.  It also includes the scanned and reprinted pages from the 1908 (approx.) catalog of the Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Company which compliments the 1916-1917 catalog found (or soon to be) on this website.  Copies of this reasonably priced - given its scope and size (450+ pages!) -and important work are available from the author by contacting him at his email:  barrett4121@sbcglobal.net

Bartholomew, Ed.  1970.  1001 Bitters Bottles.  Bartholomew House, Publisher, Fort Davis, TX.  Primarily a listing and out-of-date pricing guide, but does have some interesting history and label information.

Bartholomew, Ed.  1970.  1200 Old Medicine Bottles, with Prices Current.  Frontier Book Co., Fort Davis, Texas.  Similar to the above book, this one is primarily listing of bottles (and out-of-date pricing guide) although there is also some useful historical information related to the bottles.

Bates, Virginia T. & Beverly Chamberlain.  1968.  Antique Bottle Finds in New England.  Noone House, Petersborough, NH.  Has some very limited bottle identification and making information.

Bellaire Bottle Company.  ca. 1905-1910.  The Catalogue of the Bellaire Bottle Company.  Bellaire Bottle Company, Bellaire, O. (Ohio)  Great turn of the century bottle makers catalog which is very rare and never reprinted.  The catalog is undated, though there are several hints that support a 1905-1910 age based on a comparison between the 1903-04, 1906, 1908, and 1911 Illinois Glass Company (IGCo) catalogs.  Prices are higher than the 1903-1904 IGCo catalog, but similar to the 1911.  Considering the competition in the industry, one could assume that prices would be similar for similar items for all the major producers.  The Bellaire catalog does not offer druggist bottles with the capacity embossed (i.e., the stylized “3iii” type markings on the shoulder) like the 1903-04 IGCo catalog.  The 1911 IGCo catalog does offer many druggist bottles with the capacity embossed which indicates that the Bellaire is probably older.  The Bellaire catalog also does not offer screw top Philadelphia liquor flasks and all of the IGCo catalogs do. (This may just be a function of the Bellaire catalog being more limited in scope than the bigger IGCo.)  The Bellaire catalog does include wide mouth “machine made” bottles, which were certainly made with a semi-automatic machine which are first offered in the 1906 IGCo. catalog.

Bemis, John F., Genevieve Clark, Alene Hall, Arthur W. Nelson, Elizabeth T. Nelson, David R. Proper, and Alan F. Rumrill.  1990.  Yankee Glass – A History of Glassmaking in New Hampshire 1790-1886.  The Yankee Bottle Club, Keene, NH.  Small but informative book covering the following glassworks: Temple, Franklin, Keene (several), Stoddard (several), and Lyndeborough.

Bender, Nathan E.  1986.  Early 20th Century Commercial Closures.  Kent State University, Kent, OH.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference on Underwater Archaeology, Sacramento, CA. January 11, 1986.  This 125 page booklet contains a very good detailed overview of food preservation history and all types of closures, with an emphasis on food closures used during the early 20th century.  (Copies of this work are - or may be in the near future - available for researchers; contact the author at:  nathanebender@yahoo.com )

Berg, Capt. Dan.  2011.  Hunting Antique Bottles in the Marine Environment.  Aqua Explorers, Inc.  This smallish but copiously illustrated book is actually a good "field guide" for dating historic bottles using very well done illustrations and charts.  It also has brief, but good, information on finishes, bottle manufacturing, pontil scars, bottle types and more.  As such, it is recommended by this author for a quickie field guide - land or sea.  It is available at this link:  http://www.aquaexplorers.com/BottleBook.htm

Berge, Dale L.  1968.  The Gila Bend Stage Station.  The Kiva – Journal of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, Vol. 33(4):169-243.  Interesting study of historical artifacts - including many bottles - uncovered at this stage station which operated in SW Arizona from 1860 to 1890.

Berge, Dale L. 1980.  Simpson Spring Station: Historical Archaeology in Western Utah.  Cultural Resources Series No. 6.  Bureau of Land Management, Utah State Office done in conjunction with Brigham Young University.  Though nominally analyzing an archaeological dig at a Pony Express Station in western Utah, this large BLM publication (335 pages) also has an excellent overview of bottles, bottle making, morphology, company histories, and more, including ceramics.  Unfortunately this publication is long out of print and rarely available although an electronic (pdf) version is available on the BLM internet at this URL: http://www.blm.gov/heritage/adventures/research/StatePages/PDFs/Utah/utah_6.pdf

Bethman, David. 1991. The Pioneer Drug Store: A History of Washington State Drug Stores and Their Bottles.  Privately Printed.  Excellent, though hard to find, book that has great history on Washington druggists and drugstore bottles.  (9/03 - According to Dave he is revising the book and will publish a 2nd edition in the future.)  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

Although Bethman’s book is a study of Washington State drug store bottles, he included a seven-page section on manufacturer’s marks found on drug store bottles. Bethman addressed 26 marks specific to drug store bottles, many of which are absent from Toulouse. Others, like the six marks used by Whitall Tatum & Co. are expansions on the Toulouse information. Although the book is difficult to find, the information is well worth the effort, if you are involved in the study of drug store bottles.

Birmingham, Frederick A.  1980.  Ball Corporation: The First Century. The Curtis Publishing Co., Indianapolis, IN.

Blasi, Betty.  1974.  A Bit About Balsams.  Texian Press, Waco, TX.  According to Fike (1987), this book is “An excellent, comprehensive reference to balsam bottles; includes illustrations and documented histories.”

Blasi, Gene. 1992.  Louisville's Early Medicine Bottles.  Privately published, Louisville, KY.  Betty’s husband and a useful  book – including an ample amount of dating and historical information – on the subject of Louisville medicine bottles.  Includes decent line drawings of most of the medicine bottles covered and a section on Louisville druggist company date ranges for those that used proprietary embossed bottles.

Blumenstein, Lynn.  1963 (with many reprints).  Old Time Bottles Found in the Ghost Towns.  Old Time Bottle Publishing Co., Salem, OR. 

Blumenstein, Lynn.  1965 (with many reprints).  Re-digging the West for Old Time Bottles.  Old Time Bottle Publishing Co., Salem, OR.  Both of the Blumenstein books were some of the earliest bottle books published during the beginning of the Western collectors craze in the 1960’s.  However, they are principally simple listings of bottles with pictures and have no useful historical information connected to the specifically illustrated items.

Boow, Dr. James.  1991.  Early Australian Commercial Glass: Manufacturing Processes.  The Heritage Council of New South Wales.  Very well researched and illustrated publication on the processes of glass and bottle making from an Australian and English perspective.  Includes some excellent information on the dating of bottles using manufacturing based diagnostic features and an overview of Australian and English makers makings.

Borton, Warren. 1988.  Historical Bottles of Wyoming 1868-1915.  Privately published.  (Reprinted in 1999 as Wyoming Bottles:  Historical Bottles of Wyoming: 1868 to 1910).  Small, but nicely done (good historical information & quality line drawings) of all types of bottles and ceramic jugs from Wyoming listed alphabetical by city.  Wyoming has a small population now and even smaller during the era covered by the book, so the number of different bottles from the area is limited.

Brantley, William F.  1975.   A Collector's Guide to Ball Jars.  Rosemary Humbert Martin, Publisher.  Muncie, Indiana.  This small but informative and well illustrated book contains a good discussion of this famous company’s history,  jars and dating of such.

Bressie, Wes & Ruby. 1972 (earlier editions back to 1964).  Ghost Town Bottle Price Guide – With An Expanded Section on Oriental Relics.  Caxton Printers, Caldwell, ID.  As the name notes, this is primarily just a listing of bottles with limited historical information, though the section on Oriental items is of some utility since many are pictured.

Buckley, William E.  Undated – about 1985.  A History of The Pitkin Glasswork. Private Printing through Allied Printing Services, Inc.  History of the Famous Pitkin Glassworks. Chapters include the Beginnings, the troubled years, glassmaking, Pitkin production, endings, acknowledgments & even appendices. Great color photos.

Bull, Donald & Manfred Friedrich.  1976.  The Register of United States Breweries 1876-1976.  Privately published by Holly Press, Stamford, CT.  Good resource for the business dates of several thousand breweries in the U.S.  Book is divided into the pre and post Prohibition.

Bull, Donald, Manfred Friedrich, & Robert Gottschalk.  1984.  American Breweries.  Privately published by Bullworks, Trumbull, CT.  Sequel to the 1976 book that includes more information including the initiation of operation dates for thousands of breweries.  Both the 1976 and 1984 books are useful when used together since they do not cover the exact same general material, though cover most of the same breweries.  For simple brewery dating, the 1984 book is the most useful though van Wieren (1995) is an update to this book; see that entry below.

Burggraaf, Mike & Tom Southard.  1998.  The Antique Bottles of Iowa 1846-1915. Privately published.  This is a monumental two volume regional work that is over 650 pages long with exceptional history, state coverage, and illustrations.  This work provides great information for the dating of bottle styles over time.

Burris, Ronald B.  1967.  Collecting Fruit Jars with Price Guide.  Privately published.  This is the authors second book, the first being entitled “The Illustrated Guide to Collecting Fruit Jars” (publishing date unknown) which the author has not seen, though it is likely like this second book which is a simple – though illustrated (including good base drawings) - listing of jars with values from the 1960s.

Caniff, Tom.  1997.  The Label Space, The Book. Phoenix Press, Chicago, IL.  This book is a compendium of articles which originally appeared in Bottles & Extras magazine from 1992 to 1995 and an excellent source of information on various types of food bottles and jars.  (Caniff continues to write periodic articles as a regular column called “Fruit Jar Rambles” for the Antique Bottle & Glass Collector magazine.)

Carlson, Gayle F.  1979.  Archeological Investigations at Fort Atkinson (25WN9), Washington County, Nebraska 1956-1971.  Nebraska State Historical Society, Publications in Anthropology – Number Eight, Lincoln, Nebraska.   This is a good reference that includes images of dip molded bottles and other earlier items uncovered at a fort which was in operation only from 1820 to 1827.

Carter, Morris A. and James E. Hostetler.  1975.  Ontario Soda Water Bottles. Rune Publications, Ontario, Canada.  A listing of over 700 Ontario soda bottles used from the mid-19th to early/mid 20th century, although it contains no historical information on the illustrated bottles or companies that used them.

Chapman, Tom L.  2003.  Bottles of Eastern California.  Hungry Coyote Publishing Company, Bishop, CA.  Another of the well researched though regionally focused books by a collector that also includes excellent color photography as well as historical context.  Allows for the accurate dating of a myriad of different bottles – milks, liquor, sodas, drugstores, etc. – from the 1870’s to the mid 20th century.

Chessman, G. Wallace and Curtis W. Abbott.  1991.  Edward Hamlin Everett “The Bottle King.”  Robbins Hunter Museum, Granville, OH.  History of the Everett Glass Co. and Newark Star Glass Works and contains some excellent pictures of the glass works and illustrations of bottles they made (including the Lightning fruit jar; Henry Putnam was Everett’s stepfather).

Cheyenne Antique Bottle Club.  1973.  History of Wyoming as Told in Bottles.  Cheyenne Antique Bottle Club, Cheyenne, WY.  This book is the original book on Wyoming bottles and included good illustrations; see Borton (1988) above.

Chopping, George C. 1978.  Bottles of the Canadian Prairies.  403 pages. Privately published.

City of Astoria.  2006.  Astoria’s Historic Resources and Heritage.  City of Astoria, August 2006.  This report includes information on various Astoria (Oregon) historic buildings and businesses that was (to quote the report) “an assessment of Astoria’s historic resources and heritage that was financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.”

Cleveland, Hugh.  1988.  Bottle Pricing Guide.  Collector Books, Paducah, KY.  Simply a listing and price guide which contains no historical information on the listed bottles.

Clifford, Richard A.  1966.  A History of Fruit Jars.  Privately published.  A very small though generally information book on fruit jars and several fruit jar producers.

Clint, David K.  1976.  Colorado Historical Bottles & Etc. 1859-1915.  Antique Bottle Collectors of Colorado, Denver, CO.  Excellent book of most Colorado bottles (not druggist bottles – see Preble 2002) and includes very nicely done drawings – including base markings - and great history of the companies that used the bottles.

Colcleaser, Donald E. 1965.  Bottles of Bygone Days.  Privately published.  Napa, CA.  This early collectors book is primarily composed of decent drawings of several hundred different bottles, including base markings, and has some value because of this although it has no history about the illustrated bottles.

Colcleaser, Donald E. 1966.  Bottles of Bygone Days – Part II.  Betty’s Print Shop, Vallejo, CA.  Same comments as above book.

Cooper, K. Charles.  2012.  The Glass Beverage Bottles of the HMS St. George 1788-1811.  Masters Thesis, University of Southern Denmark.  This thesis is an excellent discourse on a large array of largely English, though some French and other Continental bottles found on this English warship wreck which sank on Christmas Eve 1811 off the coast of Denmark.  It includes excellent images of all the bottle types/styles found at the wreck site.   It is available on this website at the following link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Englishwreck1811report.pdf

Covill, William E. Jr.  1971.  Ink bottles and Inkwells. William S. Sullwold, Publishing, Tauton, MA.  This book is certainly the best book on the subject that there is, though long out of print and relatively expensive to acquire (though examples are around in some quantity).  It pictures a couple thousand ink bottles of all types, and although light on historical information compared to the plethora of images, it does contain a lot of useful information.

Creswick, Alice M.  1987 (Also reprinted in 1995).  The Fruit Jar Works Vol. 1 & 2, Privately published (1995 published by Douglas Leybourne and identical in content to the 1987 version).  Extremely detailed work on fruit jars including history, great illustrations by her husband Howard, glassmaking information and more including good information on the dates of manufacture.  Volume 1 covers jars made “circa 1820 to 1920’s”; Volume 2 covers jars made from “circa 1900 to modern” (1980’s).  Unfortunately, both printings are out-of-print again and somewhat expensive to acquire.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

Although this book is very specialized (fruit jars, as the title stated), it is a great identification guide – an attempt to catalog every fruit jar made during the 1820-1920 period. This book could have been devised with archaeologists in mind (it was not) because of the way it is formatted. Almost every jar is illustrated, including the lids, bases, and reverse sides where embossing is present. This is ideal for anyone dealing with fragmentary glass – as well as complete jars. Not only does Creswick include major variations, she showed even minor discrepancies. For example, she showed illustrations of 21 variations in basal markings on one variety of Mason jar. In addition, she provided descriptions that included the identification of the manufacturer (when known) and the date range of production. She often identified manufacturers and date ranges not found in other sources.

She began her book with a brief history of canning and followed the identification section (the main body of the book) with an extensive appendix on patents and copyrights. A second appendix (although she did not use the term) was a 12-page list of fruit jar manufacturers that included many entries not found in any other sources I have reviewed. She finished with a brief history of jar makers from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, in 1876 and historical sketches of several jar makers. My only complaint about the work is that it is out of print and quite expensive. The two-volume set is generally priced from ca. $275. I have been unable to obtain a review copy of Volume II (fruit jars after 1920), but I suspect it contains the same high-quality information.

Crown Cork & Seal Co.  (Undated but ca. 1950s).  The Story of the Crown Cork & Seal.  Crown Cork & Seal, Co., Inc., Philadelphia, PA.  A small booklet that provides information on the subject implied by title – the crown cap.

Culhane, Phil and Scott WallaceTransfer Printed Ginger Beers of Canada. 393 pages published recently.  Also published the “Primitive Bottles of Canada.

The Cumberland Glass Mfg. Co.  1911.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List of Bottles, Fruit and Battery Jars.  The Cumberland Glass Mfg. Co., Bridgeton, N.J. (Catalog reprinted by the Mooers Mail-tiques, Wheaton, MD.)   Another interesting early 20th century catalog reprinted some time in recent years and which has some similarities to the Illinois Glass Catalogs of the same era including sharing some of the same illustrations.  Also includes an assortment of “Machine Made Ware.”  The company was absorbed by the Illinois Glass Company in 1920.

Davis, Marvin & Helen.  1967.  Antique Bottles. Old Bottle Collecting Publications, Ashland, OR.  A simple, but limited, listing of bottles with photos with no historical information about the illustrated items.

Davis, Pearce. 1949 (1970). The Development of the American Glass Industry.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (Russell and Russell, New York).  Reprinted also in 1970.

DeGrafft, John.  1980.  American Sarsaparilla Bottles.  Privately published.  This is a better designed and illustrated book than Shimko’s on the subject but with very little of the historical & company information which Shimko’s book is rich in.

Deiss, Ronald W.  1981.  The Development and Application of a Chronology for American Glass.  Illinois State University, Normal, IL.  MS Thesis.  This is also an excellent overview of the subject matter described by the title and highly recommended if one can find a copy.

Devner, Kay.  1966.  Backwards Through a Bottle.  Privately published, Tucson, AZ.   This book does include some interesting historical information on a variety of different, mostly common, bottles with some emphasis on Arizona bottles where author lived.

Devner, Kay.  1968.  Patent Medicine Picture.  Privately published, Tucson, AZ.  According to Fike (1987), this book is a “Comprehensive list of medicines including dates of advertisement.  Data sources include newspaper advertisements, magazines, trade cards, and supply house catalogs.”  One of the many books Fike used in preparation for his monumental medicine bottles book.

Devner, Kay.  1970.  At the Sign of the Mortar.  Fike (1987) – “Provides a brief history of American drugstores with lists of early supply houses, their merchandise and medicine.”

Dobson, Neil C., Ellen Gerth and J. Lange Winckler.  2009.  The Shipwreck of the SS Republic (1865).  Experimental Deep-Sea Archaeology.  Part 1: Fieldwork & Site History.  Part 2: Cargo.  Odyssey Marine Exploration, Tampa, FL.  This report is probably the best documented and recorded commercial salvage operations that has significance to the goals of this website.  Over 8,000 intact glass and stoneware were recovered providing a snapshot of the styles and manufacturing techniques used for bottles made in 1865.  This report is available via this website:  http://www.shipwreck.com

Downard, William L.  1980.  Dictionary of the History of the American Brewing and Distilling Industries.  Greenwood Press, Westport, CN.   Very interesting and informative book on the subjects noted in the title.  This includes short historical sketches on many different brewing and distilling companies, glossary of pertinent brewing/distilling terms, statistical information on consumption over time, and much, much more.  Highly recommended for students of brewing or distilling history.

Drumm, Stella M. (editor). 1926.  Down the Santa Fe Trail and into Mexico – The Diary of Susan Shelby Magoffin 1846-1847.  Yale University Press, New Haven, CN.

Dumbrell, Roger. 1983 (also reprinted in 1992). Understanding Antique Wine Bottles. Antique Collectors Club, printed by Baron Publishing, Suffolk, England.  Along with Jones (1986) and Van den Bossche (1999), this is one of the best books on the subject of European-made wine bottles (many were also used for beer and/or liquor) made from the early 17th century into the 20th century, though it concentrates on the “history and evolution” of bottles made from 1630 to around 1900.  Full of illustrations, photos, and dating timelines for the various styles which includes shafts and globes, onions, mallets, cylindrical wine bottles, various three-mold types, and more.  There are also nearly 100 pages on known seals - including illustrations.

Durflinger, Roger L.  1975.  Poison Bottles Collectors Guide.  Maverick Publishing, Bend, OR.  A black & white photographic listing of different poison bottles with little related historical information on the illustrated items.

Easton, June.  1965.  Bottles West Vol. 1.  Press-tige Printed Products, Inc., Ontario, CA.  This small book has some good historical information on an assortment of common bottles such as Sloan’s Liniment, Murine, Three-In-One Oil, Edison Battery Oil, Bromo-Seltzer, and a couple dozen more.

Eatwell, John M. (editor)  1971.  Denver’s Golden Days and Apothecary Palaces.  Antique Bottle Collectors of Colorado, Denver, CO.   The following review (condensed) courtesy of Dale Wedel – State of Wyoming:  “The List of Denver Drug Stores from 1875 to 1915 is probably the meat of the book.  It was compiled… from city directories and is basically an extended table listing all drug stores in the city and their years of operation.  The table also indicates which drug stores had embossed bottles.  Included in this chapter are also a number of photographs of drug stores, and drawings of drug store bottles.  The latter lack a scale but appear to be actual size, most of them include drawings of the base.”

Eatwell, John M. and David K. Clint III.  2001.  Pikes Peak Gold.  Effective Graphics, Las Vegas, NV.  This book features a comprehensive section about all known Pike’s Peak flask variations (with excellent full-size drawings and/or color photographs), their production, identification system, and much more.  The book also contains a condensed history of Zebulon M. Pike and his 1806 – 1807 expeditions along with the famous Pike’s Peak gold rush which began (along with the flasks) in 1859.  

Elliot, Rex R.  1971.  Hawaiian Bottles of Long Ago.  Hawaiian Service, Inc., Honolulu, HI.  The smaller, though still high quality precursor to the next listed book.   The 1988 revised edition has everything (it appears) that the earlier book has plus much more.

Elliott, Rex R. and Stephen C. Gould.  1988 (revised edition).  Hawaiian Bottles of Long Ago.  Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu, HI.  Excellent book on the bottles of Hawaii that also includes a lot of information about bottle making, bottles styles.  Has value to bottle researchers far beyond just the coverage of that states bottles.  Good clear black and white photographs of more than 200 different bottles, includes soda water, seltzer, liquor, beer, and medicine bottles, with lots of useful information about the companies that produced them.

Fadley, Don.  1992.  Hair Raising Stories.  Privately published.  Excellent book on bottles related to hair – both medicinal and cosmetic.  Virtually all of the information – including good historical details - is now available on-line at the following website:  http://www.hairraisingstories.com

Fairmount Glass Works.  1910.  Bottles - Illustrated Catalogue.  Fairmount Glass Works, Indianapolis, IN.  Catalog showing a diverse array of mostly mouth-blown bottles (a few noted as “machine made”) that the company offered in 1910.

Fairmount Glass Works, Inc.  Undated (late 1920s or early 1930s).  General Catalogue.  Fairmount Glass Works, Inc. Indianapolis, IN.  Though undated, the array of bottles offered in this catalog reflect the standard styles and types of the noted era.

Farnsworth, Kenneth B. and John A. Walthall.  2011.  Bottled in Illinois - Embossed Bottles and Bottled Products of Early Illinois Merchants from Chicago to Cairo 1840-1880.  Illinois State Archaeological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, Studies in Archaeology No. 6, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.  This very recently published and very scholarly work by two archaeologists (with LOTS of help by many collectors and archaeologists) is easily the best regional work ever completed on historic bottles.  It concentrates on the area noted in the title - Illinois - between 1840 and 1880 - a significant period of American bottle making.  The quality of the full color images, excellent illustrations, descriptive manufacturing details, historic information, and even the girth (over 800 pages and 8.5 lbs in weight!) make this a must have book for archaeologists and collectors even if they are not particularly interested in the area.  For example, the author of this website will be using this work extensively to refine and reinforce various concepts described on this website due to the books exceptionally detailed information.  At $125 it is not cheap, but given its importance and utility to the goals of this website, it is a bargain for that price for a truly monumental work.  It is available at this link from the Illinois State Archaeological Survey http://www.isas.illinois.edu/publications/bottledinillinois.shtml  

The following is from the above noted link:   

In the pages of this book, we describe and illustrate nearly 1,100 different Illinois embossed-bottle varieties produced before, during, and after the Civil War for close to 500 Illinois merchants operating in over 100 small towns and cities across the state, with populations ranging from just a few hundred souls to more than 100,000 people. Several small towns are represented by only a single embossed-bottle style used by one enterprising merchant. At the opposite end of the spectrum, Chicago bottler John A. Lomax created the “Largest Bottling House in the U.S.” during the 1860s and 1870s, using over 60 different embossed-bottle styles, in a rich variety of colors, to help sell his beverages. The authors have worked with historical archivists Eva Mounce and Curtis Mann to research the bottlers and bottled products included in our book—and 14 additional historical-research contributors have added their local and regional expertise and knowledge to help make the volume a reality.

Because of the daunting scale of the effort needed to document embossed and stamped bottle styles, user/maker marks, bottle contents, and product histories, the few existing pioneering published studies of such bottles used by early Illinois merchants provide only partial, often regional, thumbnail-outline lists with little associated historical information on the merchants and their products. For example, the most extensive of these studies—which focuses only on embossed Illinois soda bottles dating from 1840 to the 1940s—lists just six embossed sodas dating to the 1840–1860 period (only three of which were recognized by the authors as dating to pre–Civil War times). Our current study documents, illustrates, and provides historical-context studies of 87 embossed soda/mineral water bottles of this age, used by bottlers in 46 Illinois towns ranging from Chicago to Cairo. For the 1860–1880 period, previous publications document only 43 blob-top soda styles statewide. Our current study provides comprehensive historical and stylistic information on 247 such bottles. Previous volumes list just 17 stamped stoneware bottles from Illinois, several of which were not identified as the product of Illinois bottlers at the time his publications appeared. Our current study provides historical and stylistic information on 37 such bottles.

Because of the scale and scope of the present volume and the limited utility of previously published sources, our focus has been to provide detailed information on bottle styles and their embossed lettering and bottle contents, in addition to the histories of Illinois bottlers who used these particular types of glass and stoneware containers. The product manufacture and use information provided within these pages, combined with information from the archaeological sites where complete and fragmentary examples of the bottles were discarded, will no doubt be of use for overview studies of consumer behavior and patterns of product movement. But our immediate study focus has been to provide archaeologists and historians from Illinois and surrounding areas with clear and comprehensive information on 1840–1880 bottle styles, product contents, product functions (both real and imagined), and merchant histories, to aid in reconstructing the age of archaeological site occupations and in interpreting site functions and occupant activities.

 

Faubel, Arthur L.  1938.  Cork and the American Cork Industry.  Cork Institute of America, New York, N.Y.  Interesting book that cover the history and use of cork for all purposes, including a chapter on “Cork Stoppers.”

Faulkner, Ed & Lucy.  2009 (2nd Edition).  Ink Bottles - 150 Years of Bottles and Companies.  Private published by authors.  Certainly the best book on American (primarily) ink bottles and their history published to date.  Lavishly illustrated with many hundreds of color images of bottles, advertisements, labels, catalog & patent illustrations, and much more this book also contains extensive histories of most all major ink producers in the U. S.   The book is (probably) available still via the authors website at this link:  http://home.comcast.net/~edandlucy1/Welcome.html

Feldhaus, Ron & the members of Minnesota's First Antique Bottle Club & North Star Historical Bottle Collectors Association.  1986.  The Bottles, Breweriana and Advertising Jugs of Minnesota 1850-1920, Volume 1: Beer, Soda, Household. Soft back, measures approx. 8 1/2" X 11".  Many pictures, drawings, and great history of companies.  Very good regional book.

Feldhaus, Ron & the members of Minnesota's First Antique Bottle Club & North Star Historical Bottle Collectors Association.  1987.  The Bottles, Breweriana and Advertising Jugs of Minnesota 1850-1920, Volume 2: Whiskey, Druggist, Medicine.  Same comments as above.

Felton, David L. and Peter D. Schulz.  1983.  The Diaz Collection: Material Culture and Social Change in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Monterey.  California Archaeological Reports No. 23, Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA.  Contains some useful information on 19th century bottles from a known dated historic site.

Felton, David L., Frank Lortie, and Peter D. Schulz.  1984.  The Chinese Laundry on Second Street: Papers on Archeology at the Woodland Opera House Site.  California Archaeological Reports No. 24, Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA.  Like the above report, this one contains some useful information on 19th century bottles from a known dated historic site; including Chinese bottles and pottery in this report.

Ferraro, Pat & Bob. 1964. The Past in Glass.  Western Printing & Publishing, Sparks, NV.

Ferraro, Pat & Bob. 1966. A Bottle Collector’s Book.  Western Printing & Publishing, Lovelock, NV.   Both Ferraro books have some useful bottle dating and general bottle related information.

Field, Anne E. 1975. On the Trail of Stoddard Glass.  William L. Bauhan, Publisher, Dublin, New Hampshire.  This is an informative and well done book on the four glass factories in the Stoddard, NH area which produced a lot of relatively distinctive bottles during the 19th century.  The factories were:  John Foster’s Works – South Stoddard; Granite Glass Co. or C. Curtis & Co. – Mill Village; South Stoddard Glass Co. or Weeks & Gilson – South Stoddard; and The New Granite Glass Works – Mill Village.

Fike, Richard E.  1965.  Handbook for the Bottleologist.  Ogden, UT.  Fike’s first book which has some limited historical information and a list of over 1000 bottles that were or could be found in the Great Basin.

Fike, Richard E.    1966.  Guide to Old Bottles, Contents & Prices 1.  Ogden, UT.  Continuation of the work from his first book, this one includes lots of reproduced advertisements and line drawings of lots of bottles.  Of some utility to the goals of this website.

Fike, Richard E.    1967.  Guide to Old Bottles, Contents & Prices 2.  Ogden, UT.  Continuation of the second Fike book above.

Fike, Richard E.   1987.  The Bottle Book:  A Comprehensive Guide to Historic, Embossed  Medicine Bottles.  Gibbs M. Smith, Inc., Peregrine Smith Press, Salt Lake City, UT.  For the identification and history medicinal bottles, this book is exceptional and should be considered part of the “canon.”  (Note: There is currently a reprint of this book available from Blackburn Press.  Click on the following link to view:  http://www.blackburnpress.com/bottlebook.html)

Fike, Richard E.  1998. A Guide to the Identification and Dating of Historic Glass Bottles.  Photocopied “short course” informal publication from the Bureau of Land Management, Montrose, CO.  Also printed in Foster (2001).

Fisher, George William.  2008.  Long Island Medicine Bottles - a Guide to Patent Medicine, Bitters, Sarsaparilla, Hair Product & Citrate Bottles c. 1830-1920 from Brooklyn, Queens, Nassau, Suffolk Counties, New York.  Privately Published.  A small (70 p.) book which is primarily a descriptive listing (none pictured or illustrated) of the noted types of bottles from the noted area with no accompanying historical information, though the author noted that a CD with such information as well as images may be available later in 2012.  (This entry added  2/2012.)

C. L. Flaccus Glass Co.  ca 1895-1897.  Flint Glass, Green and Amber Bottles.  C. L. Flaccus Glass Co., Pittsburgh, PA.  Typical glass makers catalog from the late 1890’s which includes an assortment of era typical bottles as well a plethora of other glass and related items.

Fletcher, Edward.  1972.  Bottle Collecting.  London: Blandford Press.  Illustrated but other details unknown.

Fletcher, Johnnie.  1994.  Kansas Bottles - 1854 to 1915.  Privately published.

Fletcher, Johnnie.   2006.  Oklahoma Bottles - 1889 to 1920.  Privately published.  This and the other Fletcher book above (Kansas bottles) are both examples of some of the excellent, well researched, regional books available for a few areas.  Both include good illustrations by the hundreds and very useful historical information on many or most of the companies represented by the listed bottles.

Foster, Daniel G. (editor).  2001. Reference Manual and Study Guide for the CDF-CLFA Archaeological Training Program for Registered Professional Foresters and Other Resource Professionals. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) and the California Licensed Foresters Association (CLFA).  2 Volumes, 1283 pages.  Bottle identification and dating sections are on pages 587 through 671 which are a compilation of past works in this order: Fike (1998), Rock (1990), and the Univ. of Utah/BLM/USFS IMACS guide (1992).

Fountain, John C. and Donald Colcleaser. 1969.  Dictionary of Spirits and Whiskey Bottles.  Ole Empty Bottle House Publishing Company, Amador City, CA.  Limited historical information though of some use for liquor/spirits bottle typology due to the abundance of images.

Fowler, Ronald R.  1975.  Soda – The Oregon Bottlers.  M&S Duplicating Service, Portland, OR.  Good history and information on Oregon soda manufacturing companies.

Fowler, Ronald R.  1981 (reprinted in 1998)Ice-Cold Soda Pop 5¢ - An Illustrated History of Oregon Soda Pop Bottling. Seattle History Company, Seattle, WA.  Follow-up to his 1975 book with increased historical information and better illustrations.

Fowler, Ronald R.  1986 Washington Sodas – The Illustrated History of Washington’s Soft Drink Industry.  Seattle History Company, Seattle, WA.  Excellent (and only) source of information on Washington State soda bottles with great history and illustrations.

Fowler, Ron1988.  The Bottler’s Helper.  Dolphin Point Writing Works, Seattle, WA.  This book is a facsimile reproduction of a Blumenthal Bros. 1907 book of the same name which was designed as a “Helpful Hints” resource for soda water producers in the early 20th century.  It contains a wealth of information on many related subjects. 

Fowler, Ronald R.  2006. (Third printing/Expansion/Rewrite; originally published in 1984.)  Collecting Soda Pop Bottles.  Seattle History Company, Seattle, WA.  Although the title implies this could be a pure "collector" book, it is a great overview of all types of bottles used for soda/mineral water, soda bottle closures, ways to research soda bottles and their users, and much, much more.  This book, along with all Ron's books listed here, are highly recommended to archaeologists and collectors alike for there excellent information and research.

All of Ron Fowlers books (excluding the 1975 Oregon book) are still available from the author.  See the following website for more information: http://www.seattlehistorycompany.com/

Frederick Stearns & Co. 1886.  Retail Druggist Diary and Want Book 1886.  Frederick Stearns & Co., Detroit, Mich.  Fascinating catalog from a major late 19th century wholesale druggist, patent medicine, and bulk herb producer and distributor.  Has illustrations of hundreds of bottled products which can assist with the dating and particularly, the typing, of historic bottles.  Also includes information on hundreds of domestic and imported herbs – their medicinal properties and uses, etc.

Freeman, Dr. Larry.  1957.  Medicine Show ManCentury House, Watkins Glen, N.Y.

Freeman, Dr. Larry.  1964.  Grand Old American Bottles.  Century House, Watkins Glen, N.Y.  This book is packed with information, though the organization makes it often difficult to use or to make full sense of – at least to the website author.  (Note: The 1903 Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog was also reprinted by Century House in 1964 as a small supplement pamphlet to this book.)

Friedrich, Warren B.  2010 (Also 2011 & 2012 revisions and re-printings).  Early Glassworks of California.  Privately published, 301 pages (2012 edition; previous editions were 235 & 274 pages respectively).  According to the author this book is "A comprehensive look at nineteenth century glass making (primarily bottles) in California, from the first glassworks to operate in 1859 to the demise of the largest glassworks in 1899, including rare photographs of the glasswork's display of their wares."  No future editions or printings are planned according to the author, although a few copies of the 2012 edition may still be available by contacting the author at the following email:  warrenls6@sbcglobal.net

Gardner, Charles B. and J. Edmund Edwards.  1970.  Collector’s Price Guide to Historical Bottles and Flasks. John Edwards Publisher, Stratford, CN.  Has some decent dating of historical/pictorial flasks and early American glass.

Gerth, Ellen C.  2006.  Bottles from the Deep – Patent Medicines, Bitters & Other Bottles from the Wreck of the Steamship Republic.  Shipwreck Heritage Press, Las Vegas, NV.  Interesting, well illustrated book on some of the bottles recovered from an October 1865 American shipwreck.  These type excavations, regardless of its commercial nature, still provide for an excellent “snapshot in time” for bottle manufacturing features firmly tied to a specific timeframe.

Giarde, Jeffery L. 1989 (2nd printing).  Glass Milk Bottles: Their Makers and Marks.  L. G. Enterprises, Redlands, CA.  Excellent reference on the dating of milk bottles using makers marks and other features.  Giarde's work compliments Toulouse's 1971 book and is an excellent source of dating and glassmaker information for many other types of bottles beyond just milk bottles.  Originally published in 1980, it was printed again in 1989.  Book still available (2003) from L. G. Enterprises (Leigh Giarde - author's wife) at P.O. Box 2243, Redlands, CA. 92373.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

Giarde specialized in milk bottles and addressed 201 marks used on them. He followed the style used by Toulouse, cataloging the marks alphabetically. Along with dates and historical information, he also discussed specific points about milk bottle manufacture that was not pertinent to other containers produced by the same company. He frequently listed marks not found in Toulouse along with the presence/absence of date codes and other marks specific to each company. He provided an especially comprehensive look at milk bottles produced by the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. In a second section, Giarde addressed other marks (e.g. REGISTERED SEALED 1-1114) and how to interpret them, pyroglazing (the applied color labeling used after 1933), war slogans, patent numbers, other dating elements, and color. Giarde’s dates are frequently obtained empirically and are generally accurate, although he occasionally included marks and/or dates taken directly from Toulouse or Peterson. This is an excellent reference for anyone seeking information on milk bottles and their marks.

Graci, David.  1995.  American Stoneware Bottles; A History and Study.  Calem Publishing, South Hadley, MA.

Graci, David.  2003.  Soda and Beer Bottle Closures 1850-1910.  Privately published.  A very good source of information, period illustrations, and pictures of an array of beer and soda closures.

Greenspan, Robert E.  2006.  Medicine: Perspectives in History and Art.  Ponteverde Press, Alexandria, VA.  This is a monumental (both physically and in content) work on the history of medicine, lavishly illustrated with beautiful color plates throughout.  Of interest to this websites goals is the chapter on “Pharmacy” which covers medicine and has some interesting bottles and related advertising illustrated.   This book is available at this website:  http://www.medicalhistoryandart.com

Griffenhagen, George and James Harvey Young.  1992.  Old English Patent Medicine in America.  From “Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology”, United States National Museum Bulletin 218, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., pages 155-183.  Excellent, nicely illustrated history of medicines – and their containers – which were imported into North America from Colonial days until the 20th century.  (Also reprinted in the journal “Pharmacy in History” Vol. 34(4):200-230 [1992]).

Griffenhagen, George and Mary Bogard.  1999.  History of Drug Containers and Their Labels.  Published by the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (AIHP), Madison, Wisconsin.  Exceptionally good historical overview of druggist/pharmaceutical and related bottles.  This book – and the previous one - are both still available from the AIHP through the mail; visit the following link for more information:  http://cms.pharmacy.wisc.edu/aihp/order 

Griffenhagen, George.  2002.  150 Years of Caring – A Pictorial History of the American Pharmaceutical Association.  American Pharmaceutical Association, Washington, D.C.   Although this book is primarily about what the title implies – history of APA - it does contain some interesting historical information, although nothing as significant as that found in Griffenhagens’ 1999 book.

Gusfield, Joseph R. 1970 (originally published in 1963).  Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement.  University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, and London.  Fascinating study of the roots of the Temperance movement which eventually led to National Prohibition between 1920 and 1933.

Hagerty Brothers & Co.  1898.  Hagerty Brothers & Co. New York 1898.  Bottle catalog issued by this company in 1898 and, like all bottle catalogs, an excellent source of information on late 19th century bottle types.

Hamilton, W. H. Company. 1898.  Illustrated Catalog and Prices Current. Official Western List of W. H. Hamilton Company, Manufacturers of Flint Glass Vials and Bottles. Pittsburg, PA., Works: Charleroi, PA. February 1st 1898.  Bottle catalog issued by the Hamilton Company in the noted year presumably for the Western American market.  Like all of these period catalogs it is an excellent source of information.

Harmer Rooke Numismatists. 1988.  The Samuel J. Greer Collection of Pontiled Medicine Bottles. Harmer Rooke Numismatists, Ltd., New York.  Though an auction catalog, it is an excellent source of information and pictures of over 1800 pontiled American medicine bottles from the first half of the 19th century.

Hartman, Don.  Date?  Bottles & Jugs - With a York Pennsylvania Perspective.  Rosenmiller Publishing, York, Pennsylvania. 152 pages, well illustrated with photos, excellent biographies and short histories of this Pennsylvania town producers and their products.  (Information from an internet listing.)

Haunton, Thomas C.  2011.  Last Links to the Past - 20th Century South Jersey Glass, Volume 1 - Clevenger Brothers.  Jerseyana, Wilmington, MA., Printed by Odyssey Press, Gonic, NH.  This is a very well researched and illustrated (most in color) book on the Clevenger Brothers (Clayton, NJ) who produced bottles and other glassware using old hand or mouth-blown methods from about 1930 until closure in August 1999.  A very interesting book and useful reference for ascertaining Clevenger reproductions from earlier originals - both bottles and other glassware.  Copies of this book may be available by contacting the author at: tchaunton@comcast.net

Hawkins, Jay W.  2009.  Glasshouses & Glass Manufacturers of the Pittsburgh Region 1795-1910.  iUniverse, Inc., Bloomington, IN.  This is an exceptionally well researched, well illustrated, and comprehensive book on the glass makers of the noted region which was one of the major production areas for bottles in the U. S.

Hawley, Greg. 1998.  Treasure in a Cornfield – The Discovery and Excavation of the Steamboat Arabia.  Paddle Wheel Publishing, Kansas City, MO.  Book about the salvaging of this steamboat that sank in the Missouri River in 1856.  It contained an assortment of era bottle though not as many as the SS Bertrand or Republic.

Heckler, Norman C.  1975.  American Bottles in the Charles B. Gardner Collection at Unreserved Public Auction.  Robert W. Skinner, Inc., Bolton, MA.  Though an auction catalog, this describes and pictures bottles from one of the best collections that ever existed – specializing in bitters and historical (or figured) flasks.

Heckler, Norman C.  1983.  The Edmund & Jayne Blaske Collection of American Historical Flasks.  Robert W. Skinner, Inc., Bolton, MA.  Another auction catalog that covers one of the best collections of historical (or figured) flasks ever assembled.

Heetderks, Dr. Dewey R.  2002.  Merchants of Medicine: Nostrum Peddlers – Yesterday and Today.  Drukker Press, Grand Rapids, MI.  Nicely done “coffee table” type book with a wealth of full color pictures and information on the history of American patent medicines.

Herskovitz, Robert M.  1978.  Fort Bowie Material Culture.  Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona #31, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.  Contains some very useful information on historic bottles from the era of the forts occupation (1862-1894) based on the thousands of glass items excavated at the fort.  Also contains a good section on ceramics as well as many other items found at this famous fort.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i): 

Herskovitz only presented a short discussion (pages 7-11) about manufacturer’s marks – and only those associated with beer bottles. However, his disagreement with some of Toulouse’s attributions and the assertion of alternative explanations makes this a worthwhile addition to a research library. On pages 8 and 9, Herskovitz offered a table of 76 marks found at Fort Bowie (1862-1894) that included the base marks, the number of bottles or bases on which each mark was found, additional letters/numbers accompanying the marks, name of the manufacturer (where known), and date ranges. Many of his attributions, however, came from Toulouse.

The Hocking Glass Company.  Undated (ca. 1910-1920).  Catalog Number Two – Packer’s Goods, Display Jars, Candy Trays, Etc.  The Hocking Glass Co., Lancaster, OH.  A period catalog that has jars, milk bottles, packers, and assorted glassware but few bottles per se.

Holabird, Fred and Jack Haddock.  1979 (2nd in 1981).  The Nevada Bottle Book.  Privately published.  Like many of the better done “regional” bottle books, Holabird’s Nevada bottle book is a great tool for the dating of bottles because of the research on the specific companies that is included.  Books like this help establish the background of specific information that allows for the dating of similar bottles elsewhere for which no dating references exist.

Holabird, Fred N.  2012.   Nevada History Through Glass, The Nevada Bottle Book Volume 1: Embossed Soda, Whiskey, Beer, Dairy and Other Bottles. Sierra Nevada Press, Reno, NV.  This is a significant update to the Nevada book noted above by one of the original authors.  As with Farnsworth & Walthall (2011)recent "Bottled in Illinois" book (discussed earlier) this well referenced Nevada book has high quality full color images & illustrations and a wealth of descriptive (and entertaining!) historical information on Nevada bottles and users making this a "must have" book for archaeologists and collectors even if not particularly interested in the region. 
Hardbound versions of this 350+ page book are currently available from the author at a very reasonable price (around $25).  Contact him at:  Fred Holabird, 701 Gold Run Ct., Reno, NV. 89511.
(Note: Volume 2 on Nevada drug stores & druggist bottles is pending publishing later in 2012.)

Holcombe, Henry W.  1979.  Patent Medicine Tax Stamps.  Quarterman Publications, Inc., Lawrence, MS.  Good historical information on 137 proprietary medicine companies that used private die medicine stamps.  This includes Hostetter’s Bitters, Lyon’s Kathairon, Kelly’s Bitters, New York Pharmaceutical Company, Rumford, and many more.  This book is a compilation of Holcombe’s articles published in the 1930s and 1940s, though it is now out of print and relatively hard to find now.

Holiner, Richard.  1986.  Collecting Barber Bottles.  Collector Books, Paducah, KY.  Nicely done book on the subject of barber bottles which were some of the most colorful of all mouth-blown (some machine-made) bottles.  Includes an historical overview of the subject and exceptional full color pictures of many different examples.

Horner, Roy C.  1985 (Reprint of the 1969 printing).  Tempo and the Glass Folks of South Jersey.  Gloucester County Historical Society, New Jersey.  Thought a bit disorganized, this softbound book contains some great information on New Jersey glass making, including a plethora of black and white photos and illustrations, including some great glasshouse pictures.  (According to Horner, Tempo was the glassblower’s term for their “coffee break”, or more precisely, the time not glassblowing since they were paid by the item.)

Hotchkiss, John F. and Joan H. Cassidy.  1971. Bottle Collecting Manual with Prices.  Hotchkiss House, Rochester, N.Y.  Essentially a listing of bottles with highly out-of-date prices with little in the way of historical information on the listed items.

Howe, John.  1967.  Antique Whiskey Bottles.  Privately published, San Jose, CA.  A small and out of date book that is primarily a price/rarity guide of Western whiskey bottles.

Huggins, Phillip K.  1997 (revision of 1971 book).  The South Carolina Dispensary: A Bottle Collector's Atlas and History of the System.   Sandlapper Press Co., Inc., Columbia, SC.  Excellent history of the South Carolina state run monopoly on liquor sales from 1893 to 1907 and the myriad of bottles produced by the “system”.  (Still in print 2003)

Hughey, Karen.  1972.  A Price Guide to Old Infants Nursing Bottles.  Privately published.  As the title indicates this book is an obsolete price guide to nursing bottles, though it does have a few interesting advertisements reproduced that could be of some interest.

Hume, Ivor Noel.  1991 (earlier and later printings also).  A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America.  Vintage Books, Random House, New York.  This classic book has several informative and useful chapters on glass (and pottery) bottles including an illustrated time series of primarily English-made wine/spirits bottles from 1652 to 1834 and some good illustrations (with dates) of early pharmaceutical bottles.

Hunter, Frederick W.  1950.  Stiegel Glass.  Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY.  A well illustrated and updated (with additional information from Helen McKearin) work that was originally published in 1914.  Hunter’s book on Stiegel is one of the earliest historical works on American glass on one of the earliest American glassmakers of the 18th century and includes excellent information on early glass blowing and manufacture.

Illinois Glass Co.  1896.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Illinois Glass Company.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.  Copy of an original used for this website.

Illinois Glass Co.  1899.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Illinois Glass Company.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.  Copy of an original used for this website.

Illinois Glass Co.  1903.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Illinois Glass Company.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.  Original used for this website, though the 1903-04 catalog was also reprinted by Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky in the 1970’s or 1980’s.  The reprint is a quality reproduction of the original catalog showing the hundreds of different bottle styles and designs in production at that time, which would primarily be mouth-blown (some semi-automatic production of wide-mouth items) though nearing the end of that era.  (Note: The 1903 IGCo. bottle catalog was also reprinted by Century House in 1964 as a small supplement pamphlet to Dr. Larry Freeman’s book “Grand Old American Bottles.”)

Illinois Glass Co.  1906.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Illinois Glass Company.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.  Original used for this website and to our knowledge this catalog has never been reprinted.  Like the 1903-04 catalog this one shows the hundreds of different bottle styles and designs in production at that time and is primarily mouth-blown items.  This entire catalog is reproduced and available on this website at this link:  1906 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog

NOTE: Now available (April 2014) is a large (122+ MB) downloadable PDF file of the above 1906 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog as one fully indexed file!  Click on the following link to download and view this file, compliments of a user of this website that combined all the individual page scans from the above linked page into this one file:  1906 Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog

Illinois Glass Co.  1908.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Illinois Glass Company.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.  Original used for this website and this one has also never been reprinted to our knowledge.  Like the earlier one above, this catalog shows the hundreds of different bottle styles and designs in production at that time which is right at near the end of the mouth-blown bottle production and just before the I. G. Co. began automatic machine production in 1910-11 (Miller & McNichol 2002).

Illinois Glass Co.  1911.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Illinois Glass Company.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.   Original used for this website.  (The 1911 IGCo. catalog was also reprinted by H. E. Putnam though the date of the catalog is not noted anywhere in that reprint; see “Putnam, H. E. 1965. Bottle Identification” listed below.)

Illinois Glass Co.  1919-1920.  Diamond “I” Products – General Catalog “A”.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.   An original was used for this website and no modern reprints are known.  This catalog is undated, but notes that the “new” carboy factory at Alton was completed January 1, 1919.  It also does not list the Bridgeton, NJ plant which was acquired on April 13th, 1920.   It is full of great information for the era right when the automatic bottle machine was dominant, though some specialty bottles were still being mouth-blown (perfume bottles & shop furniture in particular).  This entire catalog is now reproduced and available on this website at this link:  1920 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog

Illinois Glass Co.  1926.  Diamond “I” Products – General Catalog “B”.  Illinois Glass Co., Alton, IL.   An original was used for this website and no modern reprints are known.  This is another undated IGCo. catalog that is primarily of machine-made bottles.  However, a notice/book review in the National Glass Budget ("Illinois Glass Co. Scores."  N.G.B. 42[14]:14) July 31st, 1926) – a trade publication - announced it as "just issued."  This entire catalog is now reproduced and available on this website at this link:  1926 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog

Illinois Glass Co.  2000 (reprint).  Diamond I PERFUME Bottles & Other Drugstore Ware.  Reprinted by L-W Book Sales, Gas City, IN.  Black and white catalog reprint including tooth powders, cold creams, smelling salts, shelf ware, candy jars, fire extinguishers and more from the Illinois Glass Co. - ca. 1910-25.

Innes, Lowell. 1976.  Pittsburgh Glass 1797-1891: A History and Guide for Collectors.  Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. Excellent book on the plethora of Pittsburgh area glass houses and makers.

James, Daniel J. 1956.  The Evolution of the Glass Container Industry.  University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.  Nothing known about this book; references in the IMACS guide.

James, D.  1967.  Drug, Perfume and Chemical Bottles 1902.  Signal Mountain, TN.  Edited reprint of the Whitall-Tatum Co. 1902 catalog.

Jensen, Al and Margaret.  1967.  Old Owl Drug Bottles & Others. Peninsula Press, Inc., Mountain View, CA. Nice images and some historical information on the subject of Owl Drug Company bottles.

Jeter, Paul and Harvey S. Teal.  1976.  Columbia’s Past in Glass.  Privately published.  Book covers bottles from Columbia, South Carolina including medicines, sodas, pottery jugs, etc. and “jugs made in Edgefield, SC for Columbia merchants”.  50 photographs showing over 200 items.  Includes history, dating, variations, etc.

Jones, J. L.  1972.  Soda and Mineral Water Bottles.  Palmetto Enterprises, Greer, S.C. Contains photos (and some history and estimated dating) of “over 2000 varieties” of soda/mineral water bottles with an emphasis on late 19th to mid-20th century bottles, including lots of ACL sodas.  An interesting book.

Jones, May. 1961 to 1968.  The Bottle Trail, Vol. 1-9.  Chalfant Press, Bishop, CA.  & Southwest Offset, Hereford, TX.  Though somewhat haphazard in organization, this series of booklets contain a wealth of excellent information on a host of different bottles and related subjects, especially glass makers and their marks.  Ms. Jones was a friend of Dr. Julian Toulouse and they collaborated on makers mark research.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i): 

May Jones is one of the true pioneers of bottle research. Despite her isolation in the small town of Nara Vista, New Mexico, she built a network of bottle collectors that extended throughout the United States and included such noteworthy researchers as Grace Kendrick, author of The Antique Bottle Collector, itself a pioneer work in the field often cited by archaeologists and collectors and Julian Harrison Toulouse, reviewed later in this bibliography. She wrote a total of nine lengthy newsletters between September 1961 and February 1968. Because she was unlettered, rural, and wrote in a rambling, colloquial style, many dismiss her work. They are foolish. Jones collected information from her vast network of collectors, wrote numerous letters to glass houses, breweries, food packagers, and others connected with glass containers. She was an inveterate reader and shared her knowledge freely.

Volume 3 of The Bottle Trail was her first look at manufacturer’s marks. At this point, she made no attempt to be comprehensive but illustrated a number of marks along with her comments about them including a letter from a Mr. Caroll of Anheuser Busch giving his opinions about marks that may have appeared on bottles used by that company.

Volume 5.  By 1965, Jones produced her first tables of manufacturer’s marks. She included very few dates at that point but satisfied herself by attempting to match marks with factories. In this volume, she was also the first to illustrate the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. mark and correctly identify the meanings of the accompanying numbers by reproducing a six-page letter from Toulouse.

Volume 6. In Volume 6, Jones began to make a serious contribution. She produced two tables, one of older marks (mostly from beer bottles), the other of more recent logos. The newer table identified 85 marks with appropriate companies, although she added very few dates. The older table, however, included illustrations, company identification, and frequent dates for 38 marks along with several variations. Her illustrations were excellent and contained details often missing from archaeological reports and collectors’ literature. Many of the dates were remarkably close to those used by Toulouse and ones we have subsequently discovered.

Volume 9. Jones’ final effort, Volume 9, concentrated on the marks shown in her older table from Volume 6 but presented all the information she had been able to amass. In some cases, the information was quite impressive for the time. It included information I have still not found in any other source. She produced, for example, a large volume of information on the Missouri Glass Co., including city directory data that placed the factory in business continuously from 1859 to 1911. Toulouse completely ignored this information when compiling his data for the M. G. Co. mark found on beer bottles from the 1880-1900 period. After Volume 9, however, Jones faded into obscurity.

Jones, Olive R.  1986.  Cylindrical English Wine and Beer Bottles, 1735-1850.  National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Also produced in a French version.)  This book is an excellent source of information on the dating and classifying of early English liquor and beer bottles; the best the author has found on the subject.  In addition, the book contains one of the best discussions on the timeframe that pontil rods gave way to snap or snap case tools.  The entire book is now available as a pdf file on the Society for Historical Archaeology website at this link:  Cylindrical English Wine and Beer Bottles - English.pdf

Jones, Olive R. and E. Ann Smith.  1985.  Glass of the British Military ca. 1755 to 1820.  National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Also produced in a French version.)  Another very interesting and useful book that covers bottles (and other glassware) used in Canada and the U. S. during the period near the beginning (and just prior) of that covered by this website.  As the title implies, the slant of the book is towards items used by the British Military during several wartime periods.  This entire book is also now available as a pdf file on the Society for Historical Archaeology website at this link:  Glass of the British Military - English.pdf

Jones, Olive and Catherine Sullivan1989 (Revision of the 1985 version).  The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the Description of Containers, Tableware, Flat Glass, and Closures. Studies in Archaeology, Architecture, and History. National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Also produced in a French version.)  This is an exceptional work, which to quote from the introduction is “…intended as a reference tool for people inventorying, cataloguing, researching, and discussing glass artifacts, specifically containers, tableware, closures, and flat glass.  It provides guidance on terminology, measurements to take, and attributes to describe…”   In a sense, this is a Canadian version of the IMACS (University of Utah) guide.  Although Canadian in origin, this work is highly applicable to bottles produced in the U.S.  This entire book is also now available as a pdf file on the Society for Historical Archaeology website at this link:  Parks Canada Glass Glossary - English.pdf

Kaiser, Joan E.  2009.  The Glass Industry in South Boston.  University Press of New England, Lebanon, NH.  This is another recent high quality, well illustrated (exceptional color photographs), scholarly and well researched book.  Although covering a relatively narrow geographical area, South Boston was of outsized importance in the realm of glassmaking in the 19th century.  Besides the historical information for the various glass companies in the area, it includes some good general information on mouth-blown bottle production as well as other types of glassware including plate glass.

Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Company.  1916.  Illustrated Catalog of Packers’ Ware – Machine Made and Hand Blown, Issue of 1916-1917.  The Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co., Zanesville, OH.  Comprehensive “transition era” (mouth-blown to machine-made, though dominated by the latter) catalog that covers a wide array and depth of different bottle styles with some distinct emphasis on food related bottles, i.e., “packers’ ware.”  This entire catalog is now reproduced and available on this website at this link:  1916-1917 Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. catalog

Kendrick, Grace.  1963. The Antique Bottle Collector.  Western Printing & Publishing Co., Sparks, NV.  Several editions and many printings.  Though small, this is one of the most often quoted bottle books.  All of Kendrick's’ books have some excellent information in them, but unfortunately she also began some misconceptions that are still with us today, including the famous “bottle side seam as dating thermometer” myth.

Kendrick, Grace.  1966.  Price Supplement to The Antique Bottle Collector.  Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI.

Kendrick, Grace. 1968. The Mouth-Blown Bottle. Edwards Brothers, Ann Arbor, MI.  Excellent coverage of bottle blowing methods and processes well illustrated with pictures from a Mexican glass blowing factory of the era.

Ketchum, William C. Jr.  1975. A Treasury of American Bottles.  Bobbs-Merrill, New York.  Like Munsey’s book The Illustrated Guide to Collecting Bottles, this book is a good overview of bottles, bottle manufacturing, bottle collecting, and different bottle types.

King, Thomas B.  1987.  Glass in Canada.  The Boston Mills Press, Erin, Ontario, Canada.

Klamkin, Marian.  1971.  The Collector’s Book of Bottles.  Dodd, Mead & Company, New York.  In the style of Munsey (1970) and Ketchum (1975), this book is an overview of bottles from a general collector’s point of view with some information on manufacturing, a fair amount of history, and good black and white pictures.

Knapp, Matt.  2012.  Antique American Medicine Bottles - Collectors Reference & Price Guide.  Privately published, Frederick, MD.    This massive work on American (some foreign items) embossed medicine bottles includes many thousands of listings (including variations), hundreds of b&w images and dated advertising illustrations for the products which is helpful with the dating of them.  This work may certainly be of interest to archaeologists (possible fragment identification) and collectors alike.  This book is available from the author at this link: http://www.antiquemedicines.com/BottleBook2012.htm  Matt's website home page is available at this link: http://www.antiquemedicines.com/

Knittle, Rhea Mansfield.  1927.  Early American Glass.  Appleton-Century, New York.  The following short overview is from Lockhart (2004i):  Knittle’s work is the earliest attempt at manufacturer’s mark classification I have been able to find. The marks she addressed were almost all from the 19th century. On pages 441-442, she noted 46 marks arranged in alphabetical order in three columns that listed the marks, the manufacturing company, and the city of location. Knittle made no attempt to date the marks, and, like most of these early works, she made no attempt to cite her sources.

Knox Glass Associates, Inc.  Undated (ca. 1950).  The Knox Line of Miscellaneous Glass Containers.  Knox Glass Associates, Inc., Oil City, PA.  Another bottle makers catalog that is undated but the bottle styles reflect the 1950’s.  These type catalogs are useful for general dating and style trends and for determining the names that glass makers used for different bottle styles.

Kovel, Ralph & Terry.  2002 (12th edition).  Kovels’ Bottles Price List. Three Rivers Press, The Crown Publishing Group, New York.  Basically just a price guide with little historical information on the listed items.

Kroll, Wayne L. 1976.  Badger Breweries: Past and Present.  Privately published, Jefferson, WI.  Well researched and extensive history of Wisconsin breweries and their bottles, including the embossing pattern, base marks, photos of the breweries, and much more.  Although narrow in scope (just Wisconsin pre-Prohibition beer bottles), this is a great regional historical work though long out of print.

Kulasiewicz, Frank.  1974.  Glassblowing.  Watson-Guptill Publications, New York, NY.  Well done “how-to” book on the subject of glassmaking and glassblowing primarily for an art glass perspective, but much of it does have direct applicability to hand-made bottle making processes.  Includes a nice series of photos showing free-blowing.

Kyte, David L.  2005.  Early Utah Soda Bottles.  Privately published.  Very nicely done book and the only work on the subject.  Includes color pictures and good history of the soda bottles and includes some useful maker’s mark information.

Lacour, Pierre. 1868.  The Manufacture of Liquors, Wines, and Cordials Without the Aid of Distillation.  Also the Manufacture of Effervescing Beverages and Syrups, Vinegar, and Bitters Prepared and Arranged Expressly for the Trade.  Dick & Fitzgerald, Publishers, New York.  Apparently originally published in 1853, there were several later editions.  Pierre Lacour (originally “of Bordeaux”) was the proprietor of the New Orleans based “Lacour’s Chemical Works” which produced many of the flavorings that are suggested in the book to produce all these products without the “aid of distillation” (i.e., the products were flavored neutral spirits, the base most of the recipes in the book).  A fascinating work that gives great insight into the formulas of many alcoholic and non-alcoholic bottled products popular in the mid-19th century.  (Note:  The website authors copy of this book has an 1875 “San Francisco” recipe for making 26 gallons of “…the renowned I. X. L. Bitters” penned in ink in the back of the book!)

Lamb Glass Company.  Undated (ca. 1945-50).  The Milk Bottle.  Lamb Glass Company, Mount Vernon, OH.  This is catalog of many different style of milk bottles produced by the company.  It is undated but appears to be a of mid to late 1940s to possibly early 1950s vintage as it still offered plate mold “common sense” type milk bottles.

Leahy, Midge and Phil Leahy.  1967.  Bottles of Leadville, Colorado with History, Sketches, Rarity.  Privately published.

Levine, D. & G.  Undated (approx. 2010). The Owl Drug Co. Handbook Volume 1.  Privately published.  This book does have some history of the company and its products (pages 11-23) although the book is primarily a grouping of variable quality b&w and color images of various bottles and other non-bottle items sold by the company and their rarity.  (3/2012 update: According an email from the authors, Vol. 2 is now out and "...primarily covers documentation, pictures, some advertising, a chapter on the contributions of the company as well as other items all of which are related to the Owl Drug Company of San Francisco." )

Leybourne, Douglass M. Jr.  2001.  The Collector’s Guide to Old Fruit Jars – Red Book 9.  Privately published.  Primarily an illustrated listing (and value guide) of all known fruit jars with some information on morphology, a glossary, and estimated manufacturing dates.  Essentially this is the price guide to Creswick (1987) as it is based on the same numbering system with the same excellent Howard Creswick illustrations...and is still in print.  (NOTE: As of 2010, there is a new and updated version of this book - Red Book 10.)

Lief, Alfred.  1965.  A Close-up of Closures: History and Progress.  Glass Manufacturer’s Institute, New York.  Fike (1987) – “The technological evolution of bottle closures, their characteristics and chronologies.”

Lockhart, Bill.  2010.  Bottles on the Border: The History and Bottles of the Soft Drink Industry in El Paso, Texas, 1881-2000.  Privately published "web-book."  This is an exceptional web based "book" that covers soda bottles over a wide expanse of time.  Though specific to the soda bottles of El Paso, it has nationwide application in that many of the bottlers in 20th century El Paso were franchises spread throughout the country (e.g. Dr. Pepper, 7-Up, Coca-Cola) and the type bottles used in most areas closely parallels the usage in Texas.  The “book” also has great background information on bottle manufacture, maker’s marks, ACL’s, etc. 

This book is now available ONLY ON THIS WEBSITE as a series of copyrighted (2010) .pdf files which may be printed out to make your own book for no cost...thanks Bill!

Title Page, Table of Contents, Forward, & Acknowledgments:
http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPTitlePlus.pdf
Chapters 1-4: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap1-4.pdf
Chapter 5a
: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap5a.pdf
Chapter 5b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap5b.pdf
Chapter 5c: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap5c.pdf
Chapter 6: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap6a.pdf
Chapter 7a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap7a.pdf
Chapter 7b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap7b.pdf
Chapter 7c: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap7c.pdf
Chapter 8a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap8a.pdf
Chapter 8b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap8b.pdf
Chapter 8c: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap8c.pdf
Chapter 9a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap9a.pdf
Chapter 9b:
http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap9b.pdf 
Chapter 10a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap10a.pdf
Chapter 10b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap10b.pdf
Chapter 10c: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap10c.pdf
Chapter 11a:
http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap11a.pdf
Chapter 11b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap11b.pdf
Chapter 11c: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap11c.pdf
Chapter 12a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap12a.pdf
Chapter 12b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap12b.pdf
Chapter 12c: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPChap12c.pdf
Appendix A: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPAppendixA.pdf
Appendix B:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPAppendixB.pdf
Appendix C: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/EPAppendixC.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2011a.  The Beer Bottles and Breweries at Fort Stanton, New Mexico.  Privately published.  This well illustrated book includes information on the subject noted in the title but also has copious amounts of information on the makers markings most often found on late 19th to early 20th century beer bottles.  The book also includes two additional sections on an analysis of what mold numbers on beer bottles may (or may not) mean and an interesting overview specifically about the Biedermann-Rufley Brewery located near Fort Stanton.  This softbound book is available for sale via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart").

Lockhart, Bill.  2011b.  The Dairies and Milk Bottles of Otero County, New Mexico.  Privately published.  Bill Lockhart (NMSU - Alamogordo) and a member of our Bottle Research Group has recently published this book on the history of milk bottles in Otero County, New Mexico.  Though regional in intent, this work contains a substantial amount of information of much broader interest and utility including some general information on the dating of milk bottles.  This copyrighted work is available for sale as a softbound book via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart") or as a series of updated (2011) .pdf files which may be saved or printed out to make your own book for no cost...thanks Bill!

Title Page, Table of Contents, Figures & Tables, Forward, & Acknowledgments:
http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterotitle.pdf
Chapter 1: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap1.pdf
Chapter 2a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap2a.pdf
Chapter 2b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap2b.pdf
Chapter 3: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap3.pdf
Chapter 4: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap4.pdf
Chapter 5: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap5.pdf
Chapter 6: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap6.pdf
Chapter 7a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap7a.pdf
Chapter 7b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oterochap7b.pdf
Appendix A: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/oteroappa.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2011c.  Soda Bottles and Bottling at Alamogordo, New Mexico. Privately published.  Bill Lockhart (University of New Mexico - Alamogordo) and a member of our Bottle Research Group has recently published this book on the history of soda bottles and bottling in Alamogordo, New Mexico.  Though regional in intent, as with all his books, this one also contains information with broader relevance on the manufacture and dating of soda bottles.  This copyrighted work is available for sale as a softbound book via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart") or as a series of updated (2011) .pdf files which may be saved or printed out to make your own book for no cost...thanks Bill!

Title Page, Table of Contents, Forward, & Acknowledgments:
http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AStitle.pdf
Chapter 1: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap1.pdf
Chapter 2: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap2.pdf
Chapter 3: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap3.pdf
Chapter 4: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap4.pdf
Chapter 5a: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap5a.pdf
Chapter 5b: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap5b.pdf
Chapter 6: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap6.pdf
Chapter 7: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap7.pdf
Chapter 8: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASchap8.pdf
Appendix A: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASappa.pdf
Appendix B: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASappb.pdf
Bibliography: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ASbibliography.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever, and Carol Serr.  2012.  New Insights from the Bottles Excavated at the Fort Riley Hospital Privy. Privately published by Bill Lockhart & the Bottle Research Group.  This well illustrated work highlights the recent reanalysis of hundreds of bottles and bottle fragments systematically excavated in 1984 from a large privy at Fort Riley, KS. used from the late 1850s into the 1890s.  The reanalysis resulted in the identification of several previously unattributed makers markings as well as provided a significant amount of information to affirm and refine many of the concepts and dating guidelines found on this site.  This copyrighted work is available for sale as a softbound book via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart") or as a free, downloadable .pdf file which may be saved or printed out to make your own book for no cost!  The file is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/FortRileyReport2012.pdf

Lockhart, Bill and Michael R. Miller.  2007.  The Bottles, Marks, and History of the Southwestern Coca-Cola Bottling Co., New Mexico and Arizona, 1917-1947.  Another exceptional regional work focused nominally on a narrow field of historic bottles (SW American Coca-Cola bottles) but with much broader utility due to the extensive discussion of 20th century bottle makers and maker’s marks.  This softbound book is available for sale via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart").

Lohmann, Watson M.  1972.  Whitney Glass Works Illustrated Catalog and Price List with Historical Notes 1900-1918.  Privately published.  This is a reprint of a 1904 Whitney Glass Works bottle catalog with additional historical notes and photos from the 1900-1918 period.  A very useful little book about that glass company and bottles styles right before the Owens machine was licensed.

Love, Ed.  1983.  Colorado Breweries:  A Historical Review based on Colorado State Business Directories, City Directories, and other Sources.  Albacor, Colorado Springs, CO.

Lucas County Bottle Co.  Undated (likely 1940’s or early 1950’s).  Catalog of OnIzed Glass Containers.  Lucas County Bottle Co., Toledo, OH.  Catalog of the array of bottles produced by the Owens-Illinois Glass Company and being offered by what appears to be a distributor.

Lyman, George D.  1934.  The Saga of the Comstock Lode.  Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.  Excellent historical work about Virginia City, Nevada during the earlier days (1849-1865) prior to the “Big Bonanza.”

Madden, Michael J. and Joel C. Hardison.  2004.  An Easy Identification Guide and Typology for Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Century Bottles.  Archaeological Society of Virginia, Special Publication Number 42, 2nd Edition.  This publication is available from the Archaeological Society of Virginia which can be accessed with this link:  http://asv-archeology.org/ 

Markota, Peck and Audie.  1994.  Western Blob Top Soda and Mineral Water Bottles – Second Edition.  Privately published.  This is THE book on the subject including great historical information on the noted bottles.  A must have if you have an interest in Western American mouth-blown soda bottles.

Markota, Peck and Audie.  1999. A Look at California Hutchinson Type Soda Bottles. Privately Published, Sacramento, CA.  Same basic comment as Markota’s other book – a must have if one is interested in the history of Western American mouth-blown Hutchinson soda bottles.

Martin, Byron and Vicky.  1973.  Here’s to Beers – Blob Top Beer Bottles 1880-1910.  Privately published.  This book is a picture guide to primarily Californian beer bottles with little or no history on most of the bottles listed.  It is of some use in the identification of Western beer bottles or fragments.

Martin, Les.  1977.  A Collectors Guide to Olde Whisky Jugs.  Privately published?  Book of unknown utility.

Maust, Don.  1956.  Bottle and Glass Handbook.  E. G. Warman Publishing Company.   Many re-printings at least into the 1970’s.  Is a nice overview of glassmaking and bottle making over time.

McArthur, Lewis A.  1952.  Oregon Geographic Names.  Binfords & Morts, Publishers for the Oregon Historical Society, Portland, OR.

McCoy, Doug.  2009.  The Coca-Cola Bottle – A History of Returnable Bottles in the United States with Quick Reference Guide.  Privately published, Marietta, GA.  This is an excellent and succinct guide to Coke bottles with scores of full color illustrations of bottles from the initiation of the company in the 1890s to date.  This book is available at this link: http://www.yourbook.com/BookInfo/IP31179-09.asp

McGuire, Eric. (date unknown).  The Old San Francisco Directory of Liquors 1865-1915.  Publisher unknown.  We have never seen a copy of this booklet, but it reportedly has great business directory derived information on San Francisco liquor dealers which would be very useful for the dating of San Francisco liquor bottles – the Western city responsible for the most early liquor bottles of any west of the Mississippi.

McKearin, George S. and Helen McKearin.  1941.  American Glass.  Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.  Several later editions and many printings.  (The 1948 edition was actually referenced in the preparation of this website.) This is also an exceptional work on the subject, though from the perspective of bottles, the later McKearin & Wilson (1978) book is superior.

McKearin, George S. and Helen McKearin.  1949.  Two Hundred Years of American Blown Glass.  Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.

McKearin, Helen.  1953.  The Story of American Historical Flasks.  The Corning Museum of Glass, Corning Glass Center, Corning, New York.  This small book (70 pages) has some good historical information on American figured flasks, but is dwarfed by the information in McKearin & Wilson (1978).

McKearin, Helen.  1970.  Bottles, Flasks and Dr. Dyott.  Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.  Excellent coverage of the bottles from Dyottville Glass Works and the history around that company and its founder.

McKearin, Helen and Kenneth M. Wilson.  1978.  American Bottles & Flasks and Their Ancestry.  Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.  Exceptional reference book on the history of primarily eastern American bottles, techniques, glassmakers, etc. during the 18th and 19th centuries.  A must have for serious students of American bottles.

McNeal, Violet.  1947.  Four White Horses and a Brass Band.  Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, N.Y.  Insider account of the patent medicine and medicine show business from a medicine show con-woman.

McPhee, Steven R.  2008.  A Guide to Collecting Old Bermuda Bottles.  Privately published.  Small but interesting book on bottles found in Bermuda – primarily from the ocean surrounding this island.  It also includes some bottle making and typology history.  The bottles portrayed and discussed favor – not surprisingly – English/European made items, though it has American made bottles also.  Available at www.booksurge.com

Meigh, Edward.  1972.  The Story of the Glass Bottle.  C. E. Ramsden & Co. Ltd., Stoke-On-Trent, England.  This short book provides a quite useful overview of the manufacturing history of bottles by a well informed English glass engineer (I believe).

Miller, Edrick J.  1998.  California (Embossed) Drug Store/Pharmacy Bottles & Dose Glasses.  Privately published.  A listing of hundreds of druggist bottles from California including scanned images of scores of bottles.  Unfortunately, the book does not contain any historical information on the bottles themselves.

Miller, George, Olive Jones, Lester Ross, and Teresita Majewski. 1991.  Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists.  Society for Historical Archaeology.  This book has numerous good bottle dating related chapters, which are noted in the Periodical & Journal Articles section near the end of this page.

Miller, George L. and Elizabeth A. Jorgensen.  1986.  Some Notes on Bottle Mold Numbers from the Dominion Glass Company and its Predecessors.  National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Also produced in a French version.)  Very interesting work on the subject of molds and mold numbers in regards to meaning, dating, and more.  Discusses Canadian produced bottle molds for mouth-blown and machine-made items, though some of the information is pertinent to U. S. made items also.  This entire work is now available as a pdf file on the Society for Historical Archaeology website at this link:  Some Notes on Bottle Mould Numbers from the Dominion Glass Company and its Predecessors - English.pdf

Miller, Jack.  Undated (1970’s).  Old Arizona Soda Bottles.  Excerpts from “The Blister”, the periodic newsletter of the Phoenix Antiques, Bottles, and Collectibles Club, Phoenix, AZ.  Contains a listing of Arizona soda bottles, but no history.  (See Miller [1999] below for THE book on Arizona bottles, including sodas.)

Miller, Mark E. and Dale L. Wedel.  1992.  Archaeological Survey and Test Excavations at Fort Steele State Historic Site.  Office of the Wyoming State Archaeologist, Laramie, WY. Project Number WY-12-90, pages 162-214, 255-257, 434-454.  This is an archaeological report for a military fort that was in operation from 1868 to 1886.  Includes information on the bottles (and other artifacts) excavated at the site.

Miller, Michael R.  1999.  A Collector’s Guide to Arizona Bottles & Stoneware: A history of merchant containers in Arizona.  Privately published.  Excellent, well researched regional work on the Arizona bottles which has been recently (2008) revised and expanded as a second edition.  

M'Kee and Brothers. 1981.  M'Kee Victorian Glass: Five Complete Glass Catalogs from 1859/60 to 1871.  Reprinted by the Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York.

Moody, B. E.  1963.  Packaging in Glass.  Hutchinson & Co., London.  Interesting, though fairly technical, book that deals cover the entire range of bottle production and use from glass making to filling to final labeling. 

Morgan, Roy  1978.  The Benign Blue Coffin. 51 pages. (Poison bottles)

Morgan, Roy.  1970’s (date not listed).  Sealed Bottles: Their History and Evolution (1630-1930).  The following from a seller listing description - “Published sometime in the 1970s (not dated). There are 120 pages including index and it is profusely illustrated with black and white photographs, line drawings and reprints of early bottle making tools, etc.  This is one of the few  reference books available on early applied seal bottles and is very difficult to obtain. Morgan has an index of seals and lots of information on the various forms of sealed bottles.”

Munsey, Cecil.  1970.  The Illustrated Guide to Collecting Bottles.   Hawthorne Books, Inc. New York.  Probably the best general overview of all types of historic bottles and glass making.  Out of print but widely available used since many printings were made during the 1970s.  This is the first bottle book one should buy.

Myhrer, Keith, William G. White, and Stanton D. Rolf.  1990.  Archaeology of the Old Spanish Trail/Mormon Road From Las Vegas, Nevada to the California Border.  Contributions to the Study of Cultural Resources, Technical Report 17, February 1990, USDI - Bureau of Land Management, Nevada.  This report covers what is inferred by the title and includes some information on bottles as well as cans, horseshoes, and other cultural items found in association with this historic trail.  This publication is available through this website at the following URL: http://www.blm.gov/historic_bottles/pdffiles/oldspanishtrail1990.pdf

Nelson, Gary L.  1983.  Pharmaceutical Companies History, Vol. 1.  Woodbine Publishing, Bismarck, ND.  Fike (1987) – “A history of thirteen successful U.S. pharmaceutical companies including Eli Lilly, Miles Laboratories, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and Reed & Carnrick.

Nelson, Lavinia and Martha Hurley.  1967.  Old Inks.  Cole Printing Co., Nashua, NH.  This is probably the first book devoted solely to ink bottles.  It does contain some information on the history of ink bottles (i.e., the companies that ordered and used the bottles) listing upwards of 400 ink and ink related bottles (e.g., mucilage) with several hundred illustrations.  Also includes quite a bit of information from the original ink bottle labels.

Nielsen, Frederick.  1978.  Great American Pontiled Medicines.  Privately published. No dates or detailed company histories, but of use as a listing with drawings of various American pontiled medicines.

Obear-Nestor Glass Co.  1922.  Illustrated Catalog, Obear-Nester Glass Co., Manufacturers of Bottles 1922-1923 A.D.  Obear-Nester Glass Co., Saint Louis, Missouri.  A comprehensive catalog of bottles made by one of the larger glass companies which contains machine-made items most likely (though the manufacturing method is not noted), though does have some styles still available (e.g. gothic pepper sauce) that have not been observed as machine-made bottles indicating at least some mouth-blowing was still occurring. 

Odell, John.  1997.  Indian Bottles & Brands.  Digger Odell Publications.  237 Pages.  Similar to the Pontil Medicine Encyclopedia below, this book covers well a fairly narrow field of historic bottles with historical information and black and white photos of many of the items. Still in print; see URL below.

Odell, John.  2000.  Digger Odell's Pontil Medicine Encyclopedia: A Look at America's Pre-Civil War Medicine Bottles.  Published by the author.  An exceptional and well illustrated (black and white pictures) book on a relatively narrow field of historic bottles, though it covers several thousand different bottles.  Includes varying amounts of historical information on most of the bottles covered, allowing for good dating opportunities.  It is still in print and available at:  http://www.bottlebooks.com/  (2008 note:  A revised edition is now available.)

Odell, John.   2002. Medicines 2002 - Antique Bottle & Glass Collector Price Guide.  Digger Odell Publications.  Unlike his other two books listed here, this one is primarily a picture price guide with no historical information pertinent to the listed items.  Still in print; see URL above.

Ohio Bottle Club, Inc.  1989.  Ohio Bottles.  Ohio Bottle Club, Inc. Barberton, OH.  This book covers almost 9000 different Ohio bottles by various categories (types), though has no history on or illustrations of the listed bottles.

Ojea, Ed & Jack Stecher.  1998.  Warner’s Reference Guide.  Privately published.  Listing of the bottles of the H. H. Warner Co. (Rochester, NY) with little historical information.

Okrent, Daniel.  2010.  Last Call - The Rise and Fall of Prohibition.  Scribner, New York, NY.  Excellent historical work of the times leading up to National Prohibition in 1920 through the 13 turbulent years of Prohibition up to -and a bit beyond - repeal in 1933.

Oppelt, Norman T.  2005.  Soda and Mineral Water Bottles and Bottlers of Colorado, 1860-1915.  Oppelt Publications, Greeley, CO.  Nicely done book on the subject including good company histories, color pictures of virtually all the soda bottles discussed, maker’s marks when present, and date ranges for the bottle based on the historical information.

Ostrander, Diane Rouse.  1984.  A Guide to American Nursing Bottles.  Will-O-Graf Publications of Ohio, Willoughby, OH.  This is the best book on the subject of nursing bottles that I have found to date as it includes some good history on the subject, an overview of the different major types, and listings of almost 700 different examples.

Owens Bottle Company. 1927. Want Book and Catalog of Owens Bottles – Owens Machine Made – By Owens for Druggists.  The Owens Bottle Company, Toledo, OH.

Owens Bottle Company. 1928. Want Book and Catalog of Owens Bottles – Owens Machine Made – By Owens for Druggists.  The Owens Bottle Company, Toledo, OH.

Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  1930.  (Untitled bottle, glassware, packing materials, etc. catalog.)  Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, OH.  This is the first official bottle (and related items) catalog completed by the newly formed company in December 1930.  It is not know if the catalog was issued at this point or later; the photocopy version in the authors possession came from the O-I archives but is notated with "Catalog finished Dec. 1930."  This is a spectacularly comprehensive catalog of all the wares made by the company at that point, including liquor, wine and beer bottles even though the repeal of National Prohibition was almost 3 years later (likely the bottles were for the export market).

Owens-Illinois Glass Company. 1933 & 1935. Want Book and Price List.  The Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, OH.

Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  1952.  Duraglas Containers.  Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, OH.  Mid-20th century catalog that covers the following types of bottles: drug and chemical, food, wine, and large ware.

Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  1959.  Press Release & Script for Plant Showing of Owens’ Film.  Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  Company records relative to the amazing film clip of an early Owens’ Automatic Bottle Machine in operation including pictures of Michael Owens himself.  This clip is available for viewing at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/michaelowens.mpg

Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  1960.  Duraglas- Catalog of Dairy Containers.  Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, OH. 

Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  1962.  Duraglas  Container O-I Closures.  Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, OH.

Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  1969 & 1973.  Industry Liquor Bottle Permit Numbers - Glass Container Manufacturers Authorized to Manufacture Liquor Bottles.  Internal document provided by Russ Hoenig - an Owen-Illinois Glass Company engineer (retired).  This listing shows all the numeric codes that were required to be embossed on the base of American-made liquor bottles during the mid-20th century.  This document is available at the following link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/LiquorBottlePermits.pdf

Palmer, Walter B. et al.  1917.  The Glass Industry: Report on the Cost of Production of Glass in the United States.  U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Miscellaneous Series No. 60:1-430.  Page 72 has a good description of the mouth-blown, tooled finish process manufacturing sequence.

Papazian, Charlie.  1991.  The New Complete Joy of Home Brewing.  Avon Books, New York, N.Y.  The most popular and widely read book on the subject.

Papazian, Charlie.  1994.  The Home Brewer’s Companion.  Avon Books, New York, N.Y.  Follow-up to the above book.

Paul, John R. and Paul W. Parmalee. 1973 (Reprinted - date unknown).  Soft Drink Bottling: A History with Special Reference to Illinois.  Illinois State Museum Society, Springfield, IL.  An excellent overview of soda and mineral water – and its bottling – in the U.S.  About 2/3rds of the book is devoted to the general subject of soda & mineral water, with the last 1/3rd dealing with Illinois soda bottles.

Pendergrast, Mark. 1993.  For God, Country, and Coca-Cola: The Unauthorized History of the Great American Soft Drink Industry.  Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Pepper, Adeline.  1971.  The Glass Gaffers of New Jersey and their Creations from 1739 to the present.  Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York

Perlman, Selig. 1922.  The History of Trade Unionism in the United States.  The MacMillan Company, New York.

Perry, Josephine.  1945.  The Glass Industry: America at Work.  Covers generally the processes and history of manufacturing of different types of glass products: glass blowing, pressing, flat glass.

Peters, Roger.  1996.  Wisconsin Soda Water Bottles 1845-1910.  Privately published.  Excellent reference that includes plentiful history of the soda water companies and makers marks found on the bottles. Covers about 1400 Hutchinson and blob sodas, quart blob sodas, spring water bottles, and soda water company Weiss beers.  Over 1100 bottles illustrated (all major varieties).  209 pages, fully indexed.

Peterson, Arthur G. 1968 (reprinted several times after that). 400 Trademarks on Glass.  Washington College Press, Takoma, Md.  Useful book to go along with Toulouse’s Bottles Makers and Their Marks as far as identifying markings on bottles, though the book emphasizes non-bottle glassware.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i): 

Peterson’s small (54 pages) book is divided into three sections. The first “Trademarks on Glassware, 1860-1914” deals with marks registered for tableware. Section II “Lamps and Accessories” also deals with registered marks. The sections pertinent to this discussion are section III “Bottles and Jars” and an appendix entitled “Some Trademarks Introduced After 1914.”

Although section III is useful, it should be noted that these are trademarks used by the company rather than marks appearing on bottles and jars. For example, Peterson illustrated the upside-down bottle superimposed over a “G” used by the Graham Glass Co., Evansville, Indiana, first used in 1914. The logo appeared extensively in company literature and advertisements; however, it was never used on glass bottles. Graham used an extensive and complex method of factory identification, date codes and mold marks on the heels of its bottles but did not include the bottle-and-G mark.

The final section on trademarks after 1914 described (but did not illustrate) marks actually found on bottles along with the date each mark was first used. These dates are sometimes at odds with those found in Toulouse and are generally more accurate. Unfortunately, Peterson failed to include end dates and only listed 37 marks on pages 48-49.

Phillips, Phoebe (editor) 1981. The Encyclopedia of Glass.  Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.  World-wide overview of glass and glassmaking with copious black & white and color pictures.  Includes a nice section on all types of glass making techniques.

Plavchan, Ronald J.  1969.  A History of Anheuser-Busch, 1852-1933.  Doctoral dissertation, St. Louis University.

Polack, Michael.  2002 (more recent editions also).  Antique Trader Bottles Identification and Price Guide. Krause Publications, Iola, WI.  Though primarily a price guide to bottles as the name implies, this book does contain some useful information on the history of glassmaking and production of bottles.

Pollard, Gordon. 1993. Bottles and Business in Plattsburgh, New York: 100 Years of Embossed Bottles As Historical Artifacts.  Clinton County Historical Association.  Comprehensive listing of bottles embossed with Plattsburgh, NY with excellent history of the soda, beer, druggist, patent medicine, and dairy businesses that utilized the bottles between approximately 1870 and the mid-20th century.  Though this book is narrow in scope (one small city in New York) it is works like this that allow for the dating of similar types of bottles around the country through extrapolation since, like today, styles came and went during similar time periods across the US.

Porter, Bill. 1996.  Coke Bottle Checklist.  Privately printed.  Nice book on “hobble-skirted” Coke bottles according to Bill Lockhart.  (Also see Lockhart & Porter [2010] for more information on these bottles.)  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

Porter operated in another specialty area – this time “hobble-skirt” Coca-Cola bottles. On pages 3 to 6, he enumerated all manufacturer’s marks known to be found on Coke bottles along with specific information about marks that are only found on such bottles. Coca-Cola demanded that each manufacturer follow the Coke scheme for marking, so marks were sometimes different from those otherwise used by the same companies (e.g. CHATT for Chattanooga Glass Co. instead of the usual Circle C mark) and were placed in different locations on the Coke bottles. He continued (pages 6-8) to give other useful information specific to Coke bottles including a discussion of date codes and locations for all marks. Although a specialty area, Porter’s work is accurate and useful.

Powers, Madelon.  1998.  Faces along the Bar: Lore and Order in the Workingman's Saloon, 1870-1920.  The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.  Excellent and highly readable work on the workingman's drinking establishments in the U. S. during the 5 decades leading up to National Prohibition.

Preble, Glen R. 1987. Impressed in Time: Colorado Beverage Bottles, Jugs, etc., 1859-1915.  Antique Bottle Collectors of Colorado, Boulder, CO.  Limited to 500 copies.  A profusely illustrated and historically documented book on primarily the soda and liquor bottles of Colorado, but also includes siphon bottles and crockery jugs.  Excellent dating reference and very similar to Clint (1976); in fact Preble is really an update and expansion of Clint’s book.

Preble, Glen R.   2002.  The Rise & Demise of Colorado Drugstores 1859-1915 - A Prescription For The Bottle Collecting Habit.  Antique Bottle Collectors of Colorado Inc, Denver, CO. Soft Cover.  9¾"  by 12" tall.  Massive work (750+ pages) which is profusely illustrated - with photos of most of the bottles discussed - and in depth history of drugstores and their bottles in Colorado.   Excellent dating reference.

Puckhaber, Bernhard C.  1976 (also updated and reprinted in 1993).  Saratogas: A History of the Springs, Mineral Water Bottles Which are Known as "Saratogas," Bottling Plants and Glass Works of Saratoga County, New York, from 1823 to 1889.  Privately published. Large 8” x 11”, 91 pages. Good drawings and stories about Saratoga type bottles.

Putnam, H. E. 1965. Bottle Identification.  Privately printed.  It does not state it, but this is a reprint of the 1911 Illinois Glass Company catalog; a fact proven by a comparison with the original 1911 catalog.

Putnam, P. A.  1968.  Bottled before 1865.  Privately printed.   A fairly jumbled book which contains bottle related information taken from “…newspapers and magazines printed before 1865”.  Includes a fair amount of period information on glass making in the U.S.

Pyne Press. 1972.  Pennsylvania Glassware: 1870-1904.  Pyne Press, Princeton, NJ.  Includes a reprint of the Agnew Company bottle catalog from 1894.

Radam, William.  1912.  Microbes and the Microbe-Killer.  The Wm. Radam Microbe Killer Co., New York.  This was the famous quack medicine company purveyors response to the increasing regulatory environment of that era.

Rawlinson, Fred.  1970.  Make Mine Milk: The Story of the Milk Bottle and the History of Dairying.  FAR Publications, Newport News, VA.   Good history of milk bottling, bottle types, closures, and more.

Reher, Charles A. and Dale Wedel.  1990.  The Wyoming Territorial Prison Archaeology Project – Historical Archaeology of a Frontier Institution, Chapter 10 "Bottle Analysis." Department of Anthropology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.  (This is a draft report; whether a final was issued is unknown.) Chapter 10 of this report was written by Reher (U. of Wyoming) and Dale Wedel (Office of the Wyoming State Archaeologist) is contains an excellent overview the subject of bottle analysis from an archaeological point of view as well as specifics pertinent to the actual project.

Reed, Adele.  1965.  Old Bottles and Ghost Towns.  Chalfont Press, Bishop, CA.  Early collectors book that contains some limited historical information.

Reed, Adele.  1966.  Bottle Talk.  Chalfont Press, Bishop, CA.  This book has some interesting information on blob seals, stoneware bottles, schnapps, and an assortment of other bottles; includes some limited historical information.  (Both the Reed booklets are similar to the May Jones “Bottle Trail” booklets, but with different information; Jones and Reed were apparently friends.)

Reed Glass Company.  1910.  Illustrated Net Price List – Flint and Amber Bottles.  F. E. Reed Glass Company, Rochester, N.Y.   Glass company catalog which offered a fairly wide array of bottles, though not the depth of the contemporary Illinois Glass Co.

Richardson, Charles and Lillian.  2003.  The Pill Rollers: Apothecary Antiques and Drug Store Collectibles, 3rd Edition.  Old Fort Press, Harrisonburg, Virginia.  Nicely illustrated book including material on prescription bottles, patent medicines, shop bottles, poison bottles, etc. including company histories.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

The Richardson's only included a single page (page 162) that is pertinent to this bibliography. Their approach was to research dates for marks that identified pharmaceutical companies. They identified and dated 23 marks by such companies as well as whether the marks were placed on bases, shoulders, or (in one case) sides of the bottles. Although only useful for pharmaceutical bottles, the list provides another level of identification available to researchers.

Riley, John J.  1946.  Organization In the Soft Drink Industry – A History of the American Bottlers of Carbonated Beverages.  American Bottlers of Carbonated Beverages, Washington, D.C.,  357 pages.  Some pertinent information on soda water bottlers but not as useful as the next book.

Riley, John J.    1958.  A History of the American Soft Drink Industry, Bottled Carbonated Beverages, 1807-1957.  American Bottles of Carbonated Beverages, Washington, DC.  Reprinted in 1972 by ARNO Press, New York.    Also reprinted in 1972 by ARNO Press, New York.    Excellent overview on what the title denotes with a full and colorful history of this business.  Must be considered as part of the bottle book "canon" for soda water history along with Paul & Parmalee (1973).  However, a lot of the information on soda and mineral waters in Paul & Parmalee and that section in McKearin & Wilson (1978) came from Riley.

Rimalover, Jack K. (introduction) 1970.  Patent Medicines and Proprietary Articles:  A Reproduction of a Section of the Meyer Bros. And Co. Wholesale Drug Catalog of 1887.  Stonybrook Associates, Princeton Junction, NJ.  Interesting little booklet on the items available from this company in 1887 including the prices.  These type catalogs at least provide a point in time that the listed products were being produced and sold.

Rinda, Warren.  1987.  History and Directory of Sodas & Beers 1845-1905 Featuring Newark, N.J. Bottlers.  Downsville, N.Y.

Ring, Carlyn.  1980.  For Bitters Only.  The Nimrod Press Inc., Boston, MA.

Ring, Carlyn and Bill Ham.  1998.  Bitters Bottles.  Boyertown Publishing Co., Boyertown, PA.  Update to the 1980 book.

Ring, Carlyn and Bill Ham.  2004.  Bitters Bottles Supplement.  Boyertown Publishing Co., Boyertown, PA.   

Rinker, Meryle.  Undated (1968).  “A Dash of This…A Pinch of That” – A Bottle Collector’s History of Sauce and Spice Bottles”  Privately Published, Ashland, OR.  Actually a very useful book with good history on the subjects noted.  Similar to May Jones, Rinker wrote to many companies and individuals tracking down information on various sauce and other food type bottles.

Robinson, David P.  1971. Antique Bottle identification Made Easy. ATR Enterprises, Prescott, AZ.  Small booklet with some very limited bottle identification information.

Rock, Jim 1990.  Basic Bottle Identification. Informal published pamphlet from the Klamath National Forest, U.S. Forest Service, Yreka, California.  Also printed in Foster (2001).

Rodrigues, Arleta and Alice Creswick.  1967.  From Great Aunt May’s Cellar – A Collection of Yesterday’s Fruit Jars.  TypArt Publishing Co., Castro Valley, CA.  Apparently this is the earliest work from these two noted authors.  This book contains descriptions and illustrations (of the embossing pattern primarily) of hundreds of jars, some glass maker information, and other general fruit jar information.  The authors later books are much more useful.

Rodrigues, Arleta.  1971.  Fruit Jars: Canister to Kerr.  James Publications, Castro Valley, California.  (Note from Allen Vegotsky: “Very good for dating fruit jars with photos of many key patents and their dates of manufacture.”)

Roller, Dick. 1983.  The Standard Fruit Jar Reference.  Acorn Press.  Excellent reference on jars, glass makers, etc.   Excellent information on fruit jar types, history, makers, closures dates, etc.  Similar in scope and quality to Creswick (1987).  Unfortunately this large book is also out of print and even harder to obtain than Creswick which isn’t easy.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i): 

Although not a book about manufacturer’s marks, Roller’s fruit jar identification manual deserves a place in the listing. The main section of the work used drawings, photos, and descriptions to identify different types of fruit jars and, where possible, to name the manufacturer and set the approximate date range. The section was in alphabetical order by mark, maker, or name embossed on the fruit jar (e.g. STANDARD). In some cases, he included background information, although he did not cite his sources. Roller appended his book with sections of patents relating to fruit jars, relevant trademarks, biographical sketches of some “fruit jar pioneers,” and company histories of the Keystone Glass Works, Sheet Metal Screw Co., Mason Manufacturing Co., Consolidated Fruit Jar Co., Hero Glass Works, Ball Bros., Hazel Glass Co., and Kerr Glass Mfg. Co. Unfortunately, he did not include an index. Although currently out of print and difficult to find, the book contains useful supplemental information.

Roller, Dick.  2011.  The Standard Fruit Jar Reference.  Fruit Jar Annual/Phoenix Press, Chicago, IL.  This is an updated and greatly enlarged revision of the above 1983 work by Roller completed by Jerry McCann and Barry Bernas.  According an email from Jerry McCann to this websites author,  "(This book) is over 850 pages...the original 1983 book is an outline by comparison.  It took over 15 years and thousands of hours of work. It contains everything Dick/Alice/Kath/Caniff have researched (and in some case never published). It incorporates everything from the original edition with corrections, adjustments, etc."  A quick review of the book by this author confirms that this is indeed a significant and monumental work that is of use to anyone interested in historic bottles and jars - archaeologist and collector alike.  It is available (about $275) by contacting Jerry McCann at this email:  Fjar@aol.com

Russell, Mike.  1998.  The Collector’s Guide to Civil War Period Bottles and Jars, Third Edition.  Russell Publications, Herndon, VA.  (There were also 1988 and 1992 editions.)  An interesting and useful book that has a listing of hundreds of bottles found on Civil War historic sites or at least made during that era, i.e., 1861-1865.  Also includes discussions various glass manufacturing processes including the pontil rod to snap case transition which did coincide largely with the Civil War.  Book still available from the author (2007):  relicshop@comcast.net

Sauzay, A.  1871.  Wonders of Glass & Bottle Making In All Ages.  Charles Scribner & Company.  (Reprinted 1969 by Frontier Book Co., Fort Davis, TX.)  Interesting and useful period book – with illustrations - that has some good information on bottle and glass making.

Scholes, Samuel R.  1941.  Handbook of the Glass Industry.  Ogden-Watney Publishers, New York, N.Y.  Interesting technical information on glass making from an industrial scale perspective.

Scholes, Samuel R.  1952 (earlier editions back to 1935).  Modern Glass Practice.  Industrial Publications, Inc., Chicago, IL.  Similar to Scholes 1941 work, this book contains excellent technical information on glass making from an industrial scale perspective, including great information on glass color & decolorizing and an illustrated chapter (“The Principles of Glassworking”) that includes great mouth-blown information including some on paste/turn-molds, finishing, and more.

Schmeiser, Alan  1968.  Have Bottles Will Pop!  Michalan Press, Dixon, CA.  A decent book with b&w pictures of several hundred mouth-blown soda water bottles (1840s to early 20th century) from around the country with a concentration on – including very useful history - California, New York, and Savannah, GA. soda & mineral water bottles.  (Markota’s later books are better references for Western sodas.)

Schmeiser, Alan  1970.  More Pop!  Privately published.  Book similar to the above book.

Schulz, Jeanette K. and Peter D. Schulz.  1990.  Chapter 6 – Embossed California Bottles from the IJ89 Block, Sacramento.  In Junk! Archaeology of the Pioneer Junk Store, 1877-1908, Papers in Northern California Anthropology, Number 4, Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA.  Excellent article covering an assortment of medicine, druggist, soda, and liquor bottles – with comprehensive history of the companies - found in Sacramento, CA.

Schulz, Peter D., Betty J. Rivers, Mark M. Hales, Charles A. Litzinger, and Elizabeth A. McKee. 1980. The Bottles of Old Sacramento: A Study of Nineteenth Century Glass and Ceramic Retail Containers.  Part 1.  California Archaeological Report No. 20, Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA.  Excellent information and history on a wide array of bottles (and ceramics) found during excavations in Sacramento, CA., including detailed company histories on scores of different bottled products.

Schwartz, Marvin D. & Robert E. DiBartolomeo  1974.  American Glass – From the Pages of Antiques.  Weathervane Books, New York.  This book contains a selection of reprinted articles from Antiques Magazine (1922 to 1972) on various glass related subject.  It is broken in to two parts – Blown and Molded glass and Pressed and Cut glass.  This book is an invaluable source of information about early American glass houses and their products and includes some of the important articles by Harry Hall White (great articles!), Kenneth Wilson, Helen McKearin, Rhea M. Knittle, and others.

Scoville, Warren C.  1948.  Revolution in Glassmaking: Entrepreneurship and Technological Change In the American Industry 1880-1920.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.  One of the primary source books (and highly referenced by others) for information on the glassmaking industry in the U. S. during the period noted.

Seamans, Berna Mackey and Mertie Mackey Robb.  1969.  When? and Where? Colorado Bottle History. Eastwood Printing Co., Denver, CO.  A small book that has some utility since it includes the business dates for hundreds of different Colorado breweries, druggists, etc.  However, this information is all likely contained in more recent works by Clint, Preble, and others.

Seeliger, Michael W.  1974.  H. H. Warner, His Company & His Bottles.  Privately published.  Includes some useful history of this most famous patent medicine producer with a listing of bottles produced in the U.S. and other countries.

Sellari, Carlo & Dot.  1969-1972.  Eastern Bottles Price Guide, Vols.1-4. Area Printing Company, Dunedin, FL.  These four volumes are essentially out-of-date price guides though the books may have some utility for bottle identification (typology) via the hundreds of relatively poor quality pictures.

Shimko, Phyllis.  1969.  Sarsaparilla Bottle Encyclopedia.  Privately published.  Best source of historical information on sarsaparilla producers and bottles, though the book is long out of print and hard to find.

Skrabec, Quentin R. Jr.  2007.  Michael Owens and the Glass Industry.  Pelican Publishing Co., Gretna, Louisiana.  A new and very interesting book on Owens and his machine.  The book also has extensive information on the glassmaking transition from mouth-blown processes to machines, unionization, and of course the life and times of Michael Owens.

Smith, Elmer L.  1973 (also a 1975 reprint).  Patent Medicine:  The Golden Days of Quackery.  Applied Arts Publishers, Lebanon, PA.  This short booklet contains some history on a few patent medicines & producers with a lot of black &white photos of trade cards & advertisements.

Spude, Catherine H., Karl Gurcke, Gwen Hurst, and David Huelsbeck.  2006.  The Mascot Saloon: Archaeological Investigations in Skagway, Alaska Volume 10.  U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Anchorage, AK.  Very interesting and informative study of the archaeology and history of the Mascot Saloon in Skagway which was the gateway to the Alaska gold rush beginning in 1898.

Stage, Sarah.  1979.  Female Complaints – Lydia Pinkham and the Business of Women’s Medicine.  W. W. Norton & Co., New York.  Interesting and well done book on the subject noted in the title - Lydia Pinkham and her patent medicine empire - as well as just the general subject of patent medicines in the 19th and early 20th centuries from the female perspective.

Stau, Sven.  1987.  Embossed Pharmacy Bottles of Buffalo, New York.  Privately published. Buffalo, NY.  Small but useful booklet on druggist bottles of Buffalo, N.Y. which includes company business dates from the Buffalo City directories and nice line drawings of the bottles.

Stemm, Greg and Sean Kingsley (editors).  2010.  Oceans Odyssey - Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean.  Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK.  Book includes a chapter which is an excellent, in-depth write-up and analysis of the bottles found on the SS Republic which sank off the east coast of the U. S. in 1865.  This book is available at this link: http://shipwreckstore.com/cart/products/Oceans-Odyssey.html  The noted chapter of this book is also available on-line at this link:  http://shipwreck.net/pdf/OMEPaper6_000.pdf

Stemm, Greg and Sean Kingsley (editors).  2011.  Oceans Odyssey 2 - Underwater Heritage Management & Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel & Atlantic Ocean.  Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK.  This book includes a chapter which is an excellent, in-depth write-up and analysis of the bottles found on the "Blue China" shipwreck which sank off the east coast of the Florida in the mid-1850s written by Ellen Gerth (archaeologist for Odyssey Marine Exploration) and the author of this website.  This book is available at this link:  http://shipwreckstore.com/cart/products/Oceans-Odyssey-2.html  The noted chapter of this book is also available on-line at this link: http://www.shipwreck.net/pdf/OMEPapers22.pdf

Stein, W.  1862.  Die Glasfabrikation.  Friedrich Bieweg und Sohn, Brunswick.  This is an early German book that has excellent illustrations of various glass maker tools of the time, though of course, the text is all in German.

Stevens, Gerald. 1961.  Early Canadian Glass.  Ryerson Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Stevens, Gerald.  1979.  Canadian Glass 1825-1925.  Coles Publishing Company Limited, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  Useful book 0n the subject which includes an assortment of illustrations of the offerings from early 20th century Canadian glass catalogs – bottles, glassware, lamp chimneys, etc.

Sullivan, Jack.  2002.  The American Whiskey Jug: A Compilation of Articles with New Added Material. Published by the Author, Alexandria, Virginia (2002).  (Allen V. - While this book is mainly about whiskey jugs, it also relates to bottles and to history of manufacturers and distributors of whiskeys.)

Sweeney, Rick (editor).  2002.  Collecting Applied Color Label Soda Bottles – Third Edition.  Painted Soda Bottle Collectors Association, La Mesa, CA.  Good book on the subject including manufacturing processes, some bottling company information, and a comprehensive listing (with pictures) of hundreds (thousands?) of ACL soda with some dating information on some bottles.

Swindell Bros.  1902.  Price List, Swindell Bros., Manufacturers of Druggists’, Chemists’ and Perfumers’ Glassware.  Swindell Brothers, Baltimore, MD. Another great source of information on the styles and names for early 20th century mouth-blown bottles from a company that produced a fairly wide array of different bottles.

Switzer, Ronald R.  1974.  The Bertrand Bottles – A Study of 19th Century Glass and Ceramic Containers. National Park Service – U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 100 pages.  This is a great reference for dating a lot of different bottles from the mid-1860’s, since it covers the bottles excavated from the steamer Bertrand which sunk in the Missouri River in the Nebraska Territory on April Fools day 1865.

Switzer, Ronald R.  2013.  The Steamboat Bertrand and Missouri River Commerce.  The Arthur H. Clark Company, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.  An excellent book that expands on the history and wide array of artifacts found on the S. S. Bertrand - including the bottles covered in more depth in Switzer's 1974 book noted above.

Taylor, Gordon A.  1971.  Milk Bottle Manual: A Collector’s Pictorial Primer & Pricing Guide.  Published by the author.  (Also a second edition in 1972.)  Small but informative book on the subject of milk bottles.

Tchudi, Stephen N.  1986.  Soda Poppery: The History of Soft Drinks in America.  Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.

Teal, Harvey S. and Rita Foster Walker.  2005.  The South Carolina Dispensary & Embossed S. C. Whiskey Bottles & Jugs 1865-1915.  Privately published, Columbia, S.C.  Excellent recent work on the subject implied by the title which expands on Huggins (1971) work on the same subject.  Great pictures and information and includes a lot of general information about glass producers, bottle making, and more.

Tibbitts, John C.  1963.  Chips from the Pontil.  The Little Glass Shack, Sacramento, CA.   This book contains excerpts from the American Bottle Collectors Association (first national bottle club) newsletter “The Pontil.”  Similar in some ways to another early bottle book author – May Jones – in its rambling though informative format.

Tibbitts, John C.  1964.  1200 Bottles Priced: A Bottle Price Guide, Catalogue, and Classification System.  The Little Glass Shack, Sacramento, CA.  Early collector guide with some useful information and some misconceptions.

Tibbitts, John C.  1967.  John Doe Bottle Collector.  The Little Glass Shack, Sacramento, CA.   This book also contains excerpts from the American Bottle Collectors Association newsletter “The Pontil” and is similar in format (rambling).

Thomas, John.  1974.  Picnics, Coffins, Shoo-Flies.  Preuss Press, San Luis Obispo, CA.  Excellent historical information on this relatively narrow, but fascinating, genre of historic bottles.   All 5 of Thomas’s books are similar in this fashion.  They can be of high utility in dating the embossed (or labeled) bottles from the companies covered in the books.

Thomas, John.  1977.  Whiskey Bottles of the Old West.  Maverick Publications, Bend Oregon.

Thomas, John.  1998a. Whiskey Bottles and Liquor Containers from the State of Oregon. Privately published.

Thomas, John.  1998b.  Whiskey Bottles and Liquor Containers from the State of Washington.  Ananta Printing & Publishing, Soquel, CA.

Thomas, John.  2002.  Whiskey Bottles of the Old West.  (Revised & Updated Edition). Boyertown Publishing Company, Boyertown, PA.

Thompson Bottle Company.  1907-08.  Illustrated Catalogue and Price List, Flint, Green and Amber Bottles.  Thompson Glass Co., Gas City, IN.  Another glass makers catalog which includes a small assortment of different bottles, particularly liquor and beer bottles.

Topka, Roy M.  1988.  Old Schenectady Bottles, Imprints From the Past 1830-1910.  Private Published.  Of unknown utility.

Tooley, Fay V.  (editor) 1953 (reprints in 1957 & 1961).  Handbook of Glass Manufacture: A book of Reference for the Factory Engineer, Chemist and Plant Executive.  Ogden Publishing Company, New York.  Though long out of print and expensive to acquire, this book is a important source of information on bottle machines, processes, glass making, etc.  Though often quite technical in its descriptions, much can be learned from it even by the layperson.

 

Toulouse, Julian H.  1969a.  Fruit Jars.  Thomas Nelson & Sons, New York.  An excellent book that covers more than just the subject of fruit jars.  Includes good sections on glassmaking, closures, makers marks, and much more, as well as great information on fruit jars including dating.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

In this book, Toulouse made an attempt to catalog all known fruit jar manufacturer’s marks. The work is impressive. He arranged the marks in alphabetical order, a style that sometimes makes it difficult to find a mark and even more arduous to locate a company. This difficulty is exacerbated by the lack of a comprehensive index. He solved that problem to a certain extent, however, by including an index of sorts entitle “Fruit-Jar Manufacturers and Their Jars.” This section lists all companies identified in the book and the marks on the jars; however, it fails to include page numbers. The main section of the book showed drawings (and occasional photographs) of marks found on fruit jars and a short description, date range, and discussion of each mark and the glass house that used it. Although he failed to include any company histories (an oversight he corrected in his second book), he included sections on Men Who Made Fruit-Jar History, Using the Jars, Dating the Fruit Jar, The Shape of the Fruit Jar, Patent Chronology, and Fruit Jar Seals. The added chapters are very useful, especially to a researcher unfamiliar with fruit jars.

 

Toulouse, Julian H.  1971.  Bottle Makers and Their Marks.  Thomas Nelson, Inc., New York.  Without a doubt the best overall work on the subject of what markings bottle manufacturers used on bottles, the history of bottle making companies, and an invaluable dating guide.  Just be aware that some of Toulouse’s dates and information were speculative or have been further refined since publishing of the book 3+ decades ago.  (Note: There is currently a reprint of this book available at Blackburn Press.  Click on the following link to view:  http://www.blackburnpress.com/botmakandthe.html The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

Often considered the “bible” for manufacturer’s marks, this epic work is astounding in its breadth. By his own count, Toulouse offered information on more than 1,200 different marks found on glass bottles and jars. The book is filled with information that could only have come from a factory “insider.” Toulouse, in fact, spent his career in the glass manufacturing industry before he wrote his two books on marks for collectors.

The book is all the more remarkable when you consider that he accomplished his task without all the modern conveniences which are almost essential in compiling large databases today. He had no internet, no e-mail, and no access to eBay auctions (a great source for empirical bottle information). Often, his information about marks came from collectors writing in to organizations like that of May Jones (see above), another early pioneer in the field of marks on glass. He followed such information collecting up with calls to glass manufacturers, letters to companies, a review of the available literature, and research in city directories. The sheer volume of information he presented is daunting. The study is arranged in alphabetical order by marks. While this enables a researcher to fairly easily locate a specific mark, it separates the various company histories into choppy sections and makes tracing histories or cross checking references very difficult. It also resulted in frequent contradictions.

His work, however, has a down side. It is riddled with typographical errors, especially in the recording of dates. He is frequently a century off, for example on page 317, he dates a the mark LAMB from “1855 to 1964” – the dates are 1955 to 1964. He is often also a decade away from the correct date, such as his dating of the L-G mark from 1946 to 1954 (page 321). Other sources place the start at 1936, and empirical evidence backs the earlier decade as a more correct date. In another instance, Toulouse (page 263) had Christian Ihmsen bringing his two sons into the business in 1850, when his sources placed the date at 1860.

He frequently miscopied dates from his sources as when he stated (page 132) that W. Cunningham & Co. changed its name to Cunningham & Ihmsen in 1865 when his sources both dated the change at 1857 or when he placed Ihmsen’s retirement (page 120) at 1879 – his source said 1878. Toulouse also contradicted himself – such as when he placed the closing of Cunninghams & Co. at 1909 on page 99 but at 1907 on page 120. Since he was not specific as to his sources, we do not know which date is correct. There are so many typographic errors in the book that most of his dates should be considered approximate.

He also missed the mark (pardon the pun) by accepting the identification of marks that apparently do not exist. Our research group has been unable to find several marks that are shown in Bottle Makers and Their Marks despite the use of archaeological databases, eBay, internet searches, a large array of collectors networks, and numerous books and articles. These apparently bogus marks include IG on page 264, attributed to the Illinois Glass Co., C. C. Co. (page 117), supposedly used by C. Conrad & Co. (their actual mark is much more complex and interesting), and five out of the nine marks on pages 268 and 269 that he claimed were used by the Illinois Pacific Glass Company (or Corporation or Coast Co.). We have found only four marks used by the various incarnations of Illinois Pacific, one of which he did not list.

Another major failing of the work is the general exclusion of date codes and other marks on bottle bases and heels. These often provide helpful information and show specific dates of manufacture. In his introduction, he made it clear that he considered embossed numbers to be of little or no help in identifying or dating glass.

Bottle Makers and Their Marks is essential in any research into manufacturer’s marks, but its information should be compared with other data as well as checking the sources used by Toulouse wherever possible.

Trowbridge, John T.  1870.  Lawrence’s Adventures among the Ice-Cutters, Glass-Makers, Coal-Miners, Iron-Men, and Ship-Builders.  Henry T. Coates & Co., Philadelphia.  This book includes an interesting and entertaining, mouth-blown bottle period, discussion of glass making and bottle blowing (pages 27-96).  A pdf version of the book is available free from Google Books™. 

Tucker, Donald.  1986.  Collector's Guide to the Saratoga Type Mineral Water Bottles.  Donald and Lois Tucker, Inc., North Berwick, Maine.  Contains some interesting general bottle morphology information and historical information on some of the major mineral water bottling companies and areas that used the distinctive “Saratoga” shaped mineral bottles.  Some dating information.

Tutton, John.  1989 (2nd edition 1994).  Udderly Delightful – A Guide to Collecting Milk Bottles and Related Items.  Privately published, Front Royal, VA.  Well done history of milk bottles that includes lots of pictures of milk bottles, advertising, painted labels, and lots of related information.

Tutton, John.  1992.  Udderly Fantastic: A Pyro Primer of Painted Label Milk Bottles.  Privately published, Front Royal, VA.  This book (I believe – I don’t have a copy), along with the next two books (both in possession), are largely color picture listings of many hundreds of different ACL milk bottles although there is enough historical information to make all of the books very worthwhile to have if interested in milk bottles and milk bottle history.

Tutton, John.  Undated (1997).  Udderly Beautiful: A Pictorial Guide to the Pyroglazed OR Painted Milk Bottle.  Privately published, Front Royal, VA.

Tutton, John.   2003.  Udderly Splendid: A Pictorial Guide to the Pyroglazed OR Painted Milk Bottle  Privately published, Front Royal, VA.

Umberger, Art & Jewel. 1967.  It’s A Bitters!  Corker Bottle Company, Tyler, TX.  A dated collector guide containing primarily a list of different bitters with some pictures and little historical information.

Umberger, Art & Jewel.  1967.  Corralling The Corkers. Corker Bottle Company, Tyler, TX.  Also a dated collector guide with little historical information.

Umberger, Art & Jewel. 1968.  It’s A Sarsaparilla!  Corker Bottle Company, Tyler, TX.  A dated collector guide containing primarily a list of different sarsaparilla bottles with some pictures and little historical information.

Unitt, Doris & Peter.  1980a. (also earlier editions to 1973).  Across Canada Bottle Price Guide- Revised Edition.  Clock House Publications, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.  Primarily a listing – with photographs – of bottles from Canada and elsewhere.  Some historical information but it is limited.

Unitt, Doris & Peter.  1980b.   Bottles in Canada.  Clock House Publications, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.  A useful book for pictures (hundreds) and some decent information on Canadian bottles and glassmakers from the late 18th through mid-20th centuries.   Also covers pottery and ceramic bottles, Canadian fruit jars, milk bottles, and even insulators.  Originally published in 1972 with 1980 being the 4th edition.

Urquhart, Olive. 1976.  Bottlers and Bottles, Canadian. S.& O. Urquhart, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  Good book on Canadian bottles that includes detailed illustrations including bottle bases and base markings.  Also has a good overview of glass making.

U. S. Government Printing Office. 1927. Productivity of Labor in the Glass Industry. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin No. 441.

U. S. Government Printing Office. 1975.  Historical Statistics of the United States.

U. S. Patent Office.  1855.  A. Stone, Forming screw-threads, etc., in the Necks of Glass Bottles and Similar Articles – Patent #13,402, August 7, 1855.  U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C.   This is the earliest known patent for a “modern” calipers type lipping tool used to form bottle finishes (and in this case telegraph insulator threads).  It was not a patent for an entire finishing tool - tools which were already in use and almost certainly not patentable - but instead for a specific variation in such tools.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/lippingtool1855.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1856.  A. Stone, Tool for Making Glass Bottles – Patent #15,788, September 23, 1856.  U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C.   The second known patent for a modern caliper type lipping tool used to form bottle finishes, by the same person as the 1855 patent.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/StonesGrooveRingPatent1856.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1860.  R. Hemingway Mold for Glass Jars – Patent #30, 063, September 18, 1860.  U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C.  This very interesting patent for the “Hemingway jar” describes not only the unique mold that formed these jars but also has a short description of the method of producing an applied finish and the way that a groove ring wax seal jar is used in canning.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/hemingray1860.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1870.  W. M. Kirchner, Glass Tool – Patent #109,825, December 6, 1870.  Patent for a calipers type lipping tool that formed external threaded finishes on, presumably, applied glass.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/lippingtool1870Kirchner.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1871.  W. M. Kirchner, Improvement in Glass-Jars – Patent #115,326, May 30, 1871.   This patent is apparently for a fruit jar finishing method that forms an external threaded finish from applied finishing glass via the above patented tool.  This patent is available on this website at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/appliedexthread1871.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1872.  H. Frank, Tool for Forming Mouths of Bottles, & c. – Patent #130,207, August 6, 1872.  Patent for a calipers type lipping tool that also formed internal screw threads within applied finishes.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/frankpatenttool.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1875.  Thomas W. Synnott, of Wenonah, New Jersey, Improvement in Bottles – Patent #162,117, April 13, 1875.  This patent – issued to Thomas Synnott – outlines the formation of an inside-the-finish pouring spout formed with a lipping tool, aka “rounding- tool.”  Of more interest here, the patent also describes the tooling of an applied finish – the finish type most common in 1875 and observed on earlier L. H. Thomas bulk ink bottles with this patent date embossed on the base.  Specifically, the center plug of the tool remains stationary with the outside tongs or spring arms of the tool “…rotated to round the collar” to complete the finish conformation.

U. S. Patent Office. 1876a. J. Lamont, Glass Tools - Patent #183,267, October 17, 1876.  This is an interesting patent for a lipping tool used to form a type of applied blob finish with a “rim or groove” inside the bore for a particular closure suitable for carbonated beverages.  This patent is available on this website at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Lamontpatent1876.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1876b.  Carlton Newman, of San Francisco, California, Improvement in Bottle and Cup Stoppers - Patent #183,322, October 17, 1876.  Patent for a flask for which the stopper cap was also a metal shot glass.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Newmanpatent1876.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1884a.  J. B. Wilson, Clamp for Holding Bottles - Patent #294,946, March 11, 1884.  This is a patent for a snap or snap-case tool.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/snapclamppatent.pdf

U. S. Patent Office. 1884b.  J. B. Wilson, Tool for Forming Bottle Lips and Necks - Patent #295,848, March 25, 1884.  Another patent for a caliper type lipping tool.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/lippingtoolpatent.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1885.  W. Painter.  Bottle Stopper - Patent #327,099, September 29, 1885.   This patent was issued to William Painter (who also invented the famous – and still used - crown cap) for the loop seal or Baltimore loop seal stopper and finish.  This patent is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/baltimoreseal1885.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1886.  Charles E. Thomas.  Machine for Finishing the Mouths of Glass Bottles - Patent #348,797, September 7, 1886.  This is a patent for a treadle operated (with either man-power or mechanical power) machine that finished the mouths – aka lip – of bottles.  Presumably this machine produced tooled finish bottles, though that is not clear.  This patent is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/thomas1886.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1887.  William F. Modes, of Streator, Illinois. Mold for Blowing Turned Bottles – Patent #364,840, June 14, 1887.  This patent includes useful information about a turn-mold with a revolving base plate and a variation on the “cracked-off” blowpipe removal method.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/turnmoldpatent1887.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1890.  W. Painter.  Tool for Forming the Necks of Bottles - Patent #443,728, December 30, 1890. This patent was issued to William Painter (who also invented the famous – and still used - crown cap) for the tool that was used to form the distinct “blob” finish – with a groove inside the bore – for accommodating the loop seal closure.  This patent is available on this website at this link:   http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Paintertool1890.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1891.  W. Painter. Bottle Stopper - Patent #449,822, April 7, 1891.   This patent was issued to William Painter for “…certain improvements in bottle stoppers or seals…” – improvements to the loop seal closure itself which was first patented in 1885.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Painterstopper1891.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1893.  T. K. Sheldon & M. N. Lynn, Finishing Tool for Glass Bottles – Patent #500,960, July 4, 1893.  Patent issued to Thomas Sheldon & Mirabeau Lynn for an adjustable “finishing-tool” that was of the caliper type most commonly used for forming tooled finishes, which had a rotating center rod that moved in tandem with the spring arms to “…form the corkage of the bottle.”  (corkage = finish)  Of particular note is the succinct description of the formation of a tooled finish at the time this finishing style was becoming dominant.  This patent is available on this website at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/finishingtoolpatent1893.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1904a.  F. Scheidt.  Machine for Forming the Necks of Glass bottles – Patent #760,258, May 17, 1904.  Patent for a bench mounted, hand operated machine that would complete bottle finishes.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/lippingmachine1904.pdf

U. S. Patent Office.  1904b.  H. Coale & L. S. Greensfelder, Bottle Forming Implement – Patent #775,206, November 15, 1904.  This is a patent for a finishing tool that specifically produced tooled crown cap finishes.  This patent is available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/lippingtoolcrownfinish1904.pdf

Van Bueren, Thad M.   2005.  Lending A Hand: Archaeological Perspectives on Farm Labor at the Brown and Sanderson Farm in Amador County, California.  Historical Archaeology and Mitigation Branch, CALTRANS District 10, Stockton, CA.  Report on the excavation of historical artifacts – including bottles - from a farm in the Mother Load country of California that was in operation from about 1848 to 1917.

Van den Bossche, Willy.  2001.  Antique Glass Bottles: Their History and Evolution (1500-1850).  Antique Collectors Club, Suffolk, England.   As the title states this book covers the history and evolution of glass bottles between 1500 and 1850, with a very strong emphasis on European items, especially early wine and spirits bottles. Lavishly illustrated with color photography, it also includes one of the best bottle glossaries and probably the most comprehensive and up-to-date world-wide bibliographies on glass bottles (1,150 titles).  Although covering primarily foreign bottles, this book is listed as part of the bottle information “canon” due to the excellent photography, bibliography and glossary.

 

Van Wieren, Dale P.  1995. American Breweries II. Eastern Coast Breweriana Assoc., West Point, PA .  This is an update to Bull, et al. (1984) and highly recommended if interested in the dating of beer bottles.  I consider this book as part of the “canon” of essential books if one is interested in beer bottle history.

Van Renssalaer, Stephen.  1921.  Check List of Early American Bottles and Flasks.  Privately published, New York.  One of the earliest bottle books in the U.S. this one is essentially like the title implies – just a listing of various early American bottles and flasks.  Book is strangely organized and lacking in much historical information.

Van Renssalaer, Stephen.  1969 (1971 printing also).  Early American Bottles and Flasks. Revised Edition, Edited by J. Edmund Edwards, New Introduction by Charles B. Gardner.  J. Edmund Edwards, Publisher, Stratford, CN.  This is a greatly expanded and improved version of the original Van Renssalaer “check list” book including an additional 244 pages of American glass maker information.

Vegotsky, Allen.  2003.  Dr. Hatchett's Drug Store Museum: An Inventory and Analysis.  Published by the Stewart County (Georgia) Historical Commission as a CD-Rom in 2003.  (Note from Allen V.:  The CD contains about 180 pages of analysis of nearly 2000 drug store artifacts of the period: 1870-1957.  As many of these products were bottled products and since the CD covers their dates of manufacture and classification, I thought it might fit into this list.)

Vienneau, Azor.  1968.  The Bottle Collector.  Petheric Press, McCurdy Printing Co., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.  Small, general book on collecting with an emphasis on bottles from Nova Scotia including historical information.  Also includes some information on Nova Scotia glass companies based on glass works excavations, dating information which was pretty accurate for its day, and includes some references.

Walbridge, William S.  1920.  American Bottles Old & New -  A Story of the Industry in the United States.  The Owens Bottle Company, Toledo, OH.  Written by the Vice-President of the company.  Period overview of the process of automating the industry.

Wallace, Stephen.  2009.  Wyoming Dairies & Dairy Collectibles.  Privately published, Casper, WY.  Nicely done book that largely covers ACL (aka "Pyroglazed") milk bottles from Wyoming.  This book is available from the author at this website:  http://www.wyomingmilkbottles.com

Warman, Edwin G.  1972.  Bottle Collector’s Treasury – Classic & Common.  E. G. Warman Publishing Co., Uniontown, PA.  This book does have some interesting and useful history of various types of bottle, though has no references listed.

Watson, George and Robert Skrill.  1971.  Western Canadian Bottle Collecting.  Hume Compton, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada.  Mostly a simple listing – with pictures – of various Canadian bottles from the mid to late 19th and early 20th century.  However, there is some useful historical information and the book does show some of the different (more English) stylistic trends of Canadian bottles.

Watson, George, Robert Skrill, and Jim Heidt.  Undated -1972 or 1973.  Western Canadian Bottle Collecting – Book 2.  Evergreen Press Limited, B. C.   Good information on western Canadian breweries as well as some other miscellaneous information relative to Canadian bottles.  Hundreds of bottles pictured like the authors’ first book noted above.

Watson, Richard.  1965. Bitters Bottles. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Camden, NJ.

Watson, Richard. 1968. Supplement to Bitters Bottles. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Camden, NJ.  Both of Watson’s books were pioneers in the bottle book field, though there is a dearth of historical information on the bottles listed.

Wearin, Otha D.  1965.  Statues That Pour - The Story of Character Bottles.  An interesting book on figural bottles.

Wegars, Priscilla.  2001.  Uncovering a Chinese Legacy: Historical Archaeology at Centerville, Idaho.  U. S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Cultural Resource Series – Number 5.  This is a well done archaeological and historical work prompted by the excavations done at this “ghost town” in the early 1990s and contains some very useful information on Chinese bottles and ceramics as well as other types of bottles and artifacts.

Welker, John and Elizabeth Welker.  1985.  Pressed Glass in America:  Encyclopedia of the First Hundred Years, 1825-1925.  Antique Acres Press, Ivyland, PA.  Good work on the subject and includes pertinent bottle related glass maker information.

Weston, Mike.  1997.  Northern California Bottles.  Privately published. Simple but well done with some excellent company history and nice line drawings.  This an example of a narrow scope regional book, researched and published by a collector, that can really assist cultural professionals in that region to identify and date local bottles and bottle fragments.

T. C. Wheaton Co.  ca. early 1920’s.  Catalog and List Prices of Bottles and Glassware for Druggists, Chemists, Perfumers and Biological Laboratories.  T. C. Wheaton Co., Millville, N.J.  This catalog is undated but includes several machine-made items that were actually produced by the Illinois Glass Company – and sold by T. C. Wheaton - which are listed in the ca. 1920 IGCo. catalog for the same exact prices as Wheaton listed them.

The Wheaton Company.  1960.  The Wheaton Story.  Privately published by the Wheaton Company. Very interesting, photo packed book showing all parts of the bottle making process for both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1876.  Whitall, Tatum & Co. 1876. Whitall, Tatum & Co., Philadelphia & New York.  This is the earliest W. T. & Co. catalog we could find and is similar – though not identical - to the 1879 and 1880 catalogs as to the bottle offerings.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1879.  Whitall, Tatum & Co. Glass Ware 1879. Whitall, Tatum & Co., Philadelphia & New York. This catalog is virtually identical to the 1880 catalog as to the bottle offerings.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1880a.  Whitall, Tatum & Co. 1880.  American Historical Catalogue Collection.  Pyne Press, Princeton (1971 reprint).   This reprint is available online at the following link: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101049982596

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1880b.  Flint Glassware, Blue Ware, Perfume and Cologne Bottles, Show Bottles and Globes, Green Glassware, Stoppers, Druggists’ Sundries.  Whitall, Tatum & Co., Philadelphia, PA.  (Reprinted 1971 by Pyne Press, Princeton)

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1892 (reprint, date unknown).  Edited Reprint – 1892 - Annual Price List Whitall, Tatum & Co.  Printed by Shirley Bailey, Millville, NJ.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1896.  Price List of Laboratory Glassware and Sundries. Whitall Tatum Company, Glass Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers.  Whitall Tatum Company, Philadelphia, New York, Boston.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1900.  1900  Price List of Laboratory Glassware and Sundries. Whitall Tatum Company, Glass Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers.  Whitall Tatum Company, Philadelphia, New York, Boston.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1902 (1967 reprint).  Drug, Perfume & Chemical Bottles – 1902.  Antiques Research Publications, Chattanooga, TN.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1908.  1909 Annual Price List. Whitall Tatum Company, Manufacturers of Druggist, Chemists’, and Perfumers’ Glassware.  Whitall Tatum Company, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Sydney, N. S. W, San Francisco.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1924.  1924-1925 Price List.  Published September 1, 1924. Whitall Tatum Company, Manufacturers of Glassware, Manufacturers, Importers, and Jobbers of  Druggists’ Sundries.  Whitall Tatum Company, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, , San Francisco , Sydney, N. S. W., Buenos Aires, A. R.  This catalog is significant in that it shows that the company was still offering prescription bottles with plate molds, which almost certainly were mouth-blown bottles.  The company also offered “Machine Made Ware” which were not offered as plate molds.

Whitall, Tatum & Co.  1937.  Glassware Price List.  Whitall Tatum Company, Philadelphia & New York.

Note: An interesting observation is that the W. T. Co. made almost no bottles intended for any beverages (alcoholic or not) during the time span indicated by the 8 (different year, not including 1880b) bottle catalogs above (57 years).  The only listings for such in any of the catalogs is the earlier versions which offered a wine bottle (which looked a lot like the whiskey bottles of the era) and schnapps bottles – both in several sizes.  The owners of this glass company are believed to have been Quakers (Schulz pers. comm. 2006), which helps explain the lack of liquor bottles though they never apparently offered soda or mineral water bottles either.  The company was however well known for producing plate mold druggist bottles well into the 20th century.

White, James Seeley.  1974.  The Hedden’s Story Handbook of Proprietary Medicines.  Durham & Downey, Portland, OR. Good pictures & history of labeled medicinals from an old drugstore.

Whitehouse, David.  1993.  Glass: A Pocket Dictionary of Terms Commonly Used to Describe Glass and Glassmaking.  The Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York.   Small, nicely done book on the subject noted in the title by one of the most reputable sources for glass information.

Wichmann, Jeff.  1999.  The Best of the West: Antique Western Bitters Bottles.  Pacific Glass Books, Sacramento, CA. Excellent color images and good historical information (primarily from Wilson & Wilson [1969]) on bitters bottles used in the West.

Wightman Glass Company.  Undated (ca. 1900).  Flint Glass Prescription Vials and Bottles, Flasks, etc.  The Thomas Wightman Glass Company, Pittsburgh, PA.   Though undated, this is another of the useful bottle makers catalogs that shows styles, finishes, etc., though the selection of available molds was limited.  The company was in business under the Thomas Wightman Glass Company name from 1893 until 1917 when it was renamed the Wightman Bottle & Glass Co. (Lockhart pers. comm. 2008).

Willis, Keith.  1972.  Antique Bottles Book 1: Washington-Oregon Whiskies.  Privately published.  Crudely done but informative book on the subject including historical information (which is also found in Thomas [1998a]).

Wills, Geoffrey.  1974.  English Glass Bottles 1650-1950 for the Collector.  John Bartholomew and Son, Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland.  A small and moderately informational book on English bottles including some very useful historical information.

Wilson, Bill and Betty.  1968.  Spirits Bottles of the Old West.  Henington Publishing Co, Wolfe City, TX.  One of the best books on the subject of liquor bottles in the U. S. (not just the West) including lots of company specific information and dating information.

Wilson, Bill and Betty.  1969. Western Bitters.  Northwestern Printing Co., Santa Rosa, CA.  One of the best books on the subject of bitters bottles made and/or sold extensively in the West.  The book includes a copious amount of historical information on the bottles pictured and discussed including dating information.  This book also includes a large section with great information on Hostetter’s Bitters which was the most popular U. S. brand produced during the last half of the 19th century into the early 20th.

Wilson, Bill and Betty.  1971. 19th Century Medicine in Glass.  19th Century Hobby & Publishing Co., Amador City, CA.  Once again, this is one of the best books on the subject of medicinal bottles made and/or sold in the U. S.  It includes a copious amount of historical information on the bottles pictured and discussed.

Wilson, Kenneth.  1972.  New England Glass & Glassmaking.  Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York.  Excellent book on the subject indicated by the title.

Wilson, Kenneth. 1995. American Glass 1760-1930.  (2 Volumes) Hudson Hills, Manchester, VT.   Covers a wide array of American made glass items made during the wide era noted - including bottles - as portrayed by items in the collection of the Toledo Museum of Art.  Has some good historical and manufacturing related information including different type of molds used to make bottle and other glass items.  This work also contains an excellent glossary of glassmaking and related terminology.

Wilson, Rex L 1981.  Bottles on the Western Frontier.  University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.  Another excellent - and scholarly - book largely based on the excavations of bottles made at several 19th century military forts in the West.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

Wilson’s section on manufacturer’s marks was restricted to Appendix A, pages 113-130, although he included brief references to the marks, identification, and date ranges throughout the text. Except for a very short discussion on marks found on ceramic bottles, the section only discussed marks on bases of beer bottles found at Fort Union. Wilson explained, “The marks are depicted here because the bottles can be dated safely between 1863 and 1891 [the dates Fort Union was open]” (Wilson 1981:113). Wilson included no dates for each mark but attributed them to factories in most cases. He illustrated each mark found on the site along with accompanying letters, numbers, and symbols. Wilson provided an excellent study of mark variation.

Wood, Mabel C.  1973.  Chemung County New York -  Bottles, Bottlers, and their Stories.  Golos Publishing Co., Elmira Heights, New York.  This decently illustrated and relatively well researched book has some very useful historical information (including date ranges) about the businesses - and the bottles they used - in the Elmira, NY (south central NY) area.

Wood, Zang. 1998.  New Mexico Blobs – Hutchs – Mineral Waters.  Privately published, Flora Vista, NM.  I have no experience with this book but it reportedly has excellent historical research on the companies that used the illustrated bottles.

World Book Encyclopedia. 1958.  Bottles in the Making.  Field Enterprises Education Corporation.

Wright, Barry.  1991.  .  Stuart Graphics and Printing, Bridgewater, Nova Embossed Glass Soda Water Bottles in Nova Scotia Scotia.  Primarily a listing of soda water bottles from Nova Scotia with nice line drawings but little historical information.

Year Book of the Commercial, Banking, and Manufacturing Interests of St. Louis.  1882.  Year Book of the Commercial, Banking, and Manufacturing Interests of St. Louis with a General Review of its Transportation Facilities and Business Progress.  S. Ferd. Howe & Co., St. Louis.

Young, James Harvey. 1962. The Toadstool Millionaires – A Social History of Patent Medicines in America before Federal Regulation.  Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.  Great history of the age of quackery and the patent medicine industry in the US up to around the passage of the Pure Food & Drugs Act of 1906.  Note:  This entire book is available now online at this URL:  http://www.quackwatch.org/13Hx/TM/00.html

Young, James Harvey.  1967.  The Medical Messiahs.    Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.  This book takes off where the Toadstool Millionaires ends, covering the history of “quackery” in the 20th century up to the time the book was written.

Zumwalt, Betty  1980.  Ketchup, Pickles, Sauces - 19th Century Food in Glass.  Mark West Publishers, Fulton, CA.  480 pp.  Great coverage of food and sauce bottles including company histories, advertising, patents, with lots of photographs.  (This is the same person as Betty Wilson.)

 

INTERNET REFERENCE SITES

British Glass.  2004.  Any Questions, Every Answer (Q&A page). Homepage: http://www.britglass.org.uk/  This is a webpage sponsored by 6 different British glass producers and includes some interesting information on glass making.

Fowler, Ron.  2012.   The Hutchinson Bottle Directory.  Ron Fowler has just completed (August 2012) a website that includes a searchable directory database of the well over 17,000 different embossed Hutchinson soda bottles that he has cataloged.  It is available a this link:  http://www.hutchbook.com  Although still a bit of a work in progress (primarily the inclusion of thousands of bottle images!) this website is already a marvelous resource for those trying to identify soda bottles and fragments as well as so much more.

Hinson,  Dave.  2002. Frequently Asked Questions – Fruit Jarshttp://www.av.qnet.com/~glassman/info/jarfaq.htm  This is part of the Federation of Historic Bottle Collectors (FOHBC) website.  The FOHBC site is one of the better resources on bottle collecting and bottle related historic information.

Hunt, William J. Jr. (compiler). 1995.  Embossed Medicine Bottle Labels: An Electronic Finding Aid for the Identification of Archeological Specimens. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska. Revised August, 1997.  On the internet at: http://www.cr.nps.gov/mwac/bottle_glass/   A comprehensive listing of embossed medicine bottles compiled from dozens of reference sources.  Hunt’s listing itself doesn’t provide any history but does note the reference source for each of the 6000+ listed bottles.

Kyvig, David.  1979.  "Repealing National Prohibition"  Schaffer Library of Drug Policy, University of Chicago.  This web based article is an excellent overview of Prohibition - the times leading up to it, National Prohibition itself, and its eventual repeal.  It can be found at the following link:  http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/rnp/RNP1.html

Mobley, Bruce.  2005.  Beer Bottle Library of Embossed Beer Bottles.  A great site to view an extensive array of different pre-Prohibition beer bottles from around the country that may be of use to some viewers for fragment identification.  It is at the following link http://brucemobley.com/beerbottlelibrary/

Rochester Midland Corporation.  2005.  Sanor’s Historyhttp://www.rochestermidland.com/division/sanor/history.html

Spurgeon, Greg.  2004. Jar Colors. Greg Spurgeon Antiques website located at the following URL: http://www.hoosierjar.com.  Nicely done webpage concentrating on fruit jars with good color information with good quality pictures.

University of Utah.  1982 (Bottle section – Part 472 -  revised 1992).   Intermountain Antiquities Computer System (IMACS) Guide.  Maintained by the University of Utah  but co-sponsored by several other agencies including several Intermountain BLM states and National Forests.  Available online at:  http://anthro.utah.edu/labs/imacs.php   This is a guide to assist agency archaeologists in inputting information into a database.  Among many areas of pre-historic and historic archaeology, it contains and a good (though limited) overview of bottle manufacturing techniques, dating tools, diagnostic characteristics, and related information, including some decent line drawings.  Portions of the IMACS internet guide are linked from various pages on this website.

von Mechow, Tod.  2009.  Soda & Beer Bottles of North America.  This is an excellent website that is a great resource on the subject of earlier soda and beer bottles made and used in North American.  It includes a wealth of information on mouth-blown soda and beer bottles including finishes, styles, closures, etc. and includes thousands of images, dating information and more for over 25,000 bottles (as of late 2011)!  It is available at the following link:  http://www.sodasandbeers.com

Whitten, David.  2005 (updated with new URL 2012). Glass Manufacturers' Marks on Bottles.   Webpage located at the following URL:  http://www.glassbottlemarks/bottlemarks/  This is an excellent resource on bottle makers markings, which is constantly being updated and refined.  The following overview is from Lockhart (2004i):

This is one of the most useful and well-maintained websites for researchers of manufacturer’s marks. Whitten (a member of the research group to which this author belongs) has compiled an accurate list alphabetically ordered by marks. Generally, the site contains minimal factory information, although Whitten occasionally includes longer discussions and provides links to other pages for additional information on selected companies. These pages are updated on a regular basis and tap into the latest information available from our group research as well as Whitten’s own individual work. Unlike the other sources listed in this bibliography, this site is immediately accessible to almost anyone (requires a computer and internet access). For a fast and accurate identification of manufacturer’s marks, this is an excellent resource.  

 

 

PERIODICAL & JOURNAL ARTICLES
(including some compilation book chapters)

Alverson, D. J.  1967. Of Bases and Pontil Scars.  The Western Collector 5(12):39-43 (December 1967), San Francisco, CA.

Anonymous.  1904.  Finishing a Bottle. National Glass Budget 19(40):1

Anonymous.  1929.  Catsup Packers Urged to Cooperate in the Use of the Glass Container Condiment Finishes for 1929 Catsup Pack.  The Glass Container 8(5):10-11 (March 1929).

Anonymous. 1934.  Liquor Bottle Regulations summarized for Glass Packer readers.  The Glass Packer 18(?) August 1934 edition.  Summary of the immediate post-Prohibition rules as to the embossing on glass liquor containers.

Anonymous.  1958.  Drip-or-pour closure.  Modern Packaging 31(4):101.  Article about the switch by Lea & Perrins from the shell cork and stopper closure to a plastic pour spout and an external threaded finish/cap.

Atwater, R. M.  1893.  The Glass-Making Industry in America.  Engineering Magazine 4:883-897.  Interesting period piece on the subject noted in the title.

Baab, Bill.  2005.  High Caliber Bottle Designed for Atlanta’s Gate City Guard.  Bottles and Extras 16(4):4,6, Johnson City, TN.  Short article about the use of the “Newman” flask by a early “National Guard” unit in Atlanta, GA. In 1880.

Beaudet, Pierre R.  1981.  Bottle Glass from a Privy at Fort George Military Reserve, Ontario.  History and Archaeology #45, p. 83-122.  National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada.  Includes an apparently solid reference to a turn-mold bottle produced in the mid 1850s.

Berge, Dale L. 1968.  The Gila Bend Stage Station.  The Kiva – Journal of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society 33(4):169-243.  Informative article about a site in Arizona that was occupied from about 1850 to 1890; the site was dated in part by an analysis of the bottles unearthed.

Bernas, Barry.  2011.  The Evolution of Jar Machine. (Originally privately published as part of the 2011 Fruit Jar Annual.)  This article is being made available here compliments of the author and is a fascinating history of the late 19th century evolution of wide mouth, press-and-blow jar making technology and machines.  Click on the following link to access this article:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/evolutionjarmachineBernas.pdf

Bowyer, Gary C.  2002.  Twentieth Century Material Culture Variability: Valve Marks, Milk Cans, and Tobacco Tins.  Association of Oregon Archaeologists Occasional Papers No. 7

Brose, David S. and David W. Rupp.  1967.  The Custer Road Dump Site: An Exercise in Victorian Archaeology.  The Michigan Archaeologist 13(2):37-138, Michigan Archaeological Society, Ann Arbor, MI.  A report of the findings of an historic site excavation in Michigan that includes bottles dating between 1876 and 1895.  The bottles are described in “Appendix on Glass Bottles from the Custer Road Dump Site.”

Busch, Jane.  1987.  Second Time Around:  A Look at Bottle Reuse.  Historical Archaeology, 21(1):67-80.  Also found in the 1991 book Approaches to Material Culture: Research for Historical Archaeologists, pp. 113-126.  (Society for Historical Archaeology, California & Pennsylvania.)  This is an excellent article on the subject of bottle reuse in the U.S.   This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:    http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Buschbottlereuse.pdf

Cable, Michael.  1999.  Mechanization of Glass Manufacture.  Journal of the American Ceramics Society 82(5): 1093-1112.  Excellent article on the mechanization of the glass making industry during the first half of the 20th century.

Caniff, Tom.  2008.  Fruit Jar Rambles.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 24(11):6-9 (March 2008), E. Greenville, PA.  Article includes a good write-up on the Goldy Seal closure.

Cannon, Dr. Richard. 1990.  The Pontil Scar. Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 7(2):66-69 (June 1990), E. Greenville, PA.  Short and concise article on the subject largely based on Toulouse’s work (Toulouse 1968 & subsequent re-visions).  Dr. Cannon has authored an ongoing and long term (since 1985) series of articles in this magazine which are often quite excellent.  Most of these articles can be found online at the magazine’s website - http://glswrk-auction.com/index.htm

Carley, Caroline D.  1981.  Historical and Archaeological Evidence of 19th Century Fever Epidemics at Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver.  Historical Archaeology, 15(1):19–35.  (This article is a condensed version of a Master's thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow.)  This article is not specifically referenced on this website but is an excellent example of the use of excavated artifacts – including bottle fragments - in hand with the historical record in reconstructing the probable details of an important historical event; in this case, the malaria epidemics of the early 19th century Northwest.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Carley1981.pdf

Collins, Donald R.  1969.  The Hutchinson Stopper.  Old Bottle Magazine Vol. 2, No. 7, Bend, OR.  Good overview of the subject, with references.

Dillon, C. L.  1958.  Current Trends in Glass Technology.  American Journal of Enology 9(2):59-63, American Society of Enologists, Davis, CA.  Short but concise overview of glass composition and colors.

Firebaugh, Gail S.  1983.  An Archaeologist’s Guide to the Historical Evolution of Glass Bottle Technology.  Bulletin of the Colorado Archaeological Society 49(2):9-20

Gallagher, Thomas F. and Cecil Munsey.  1969.  Milk and Its Containers.  The Western Collector 7(7):330-336.  Very good article on the subject.

Gillman, Edward F. and Dennis G. Watson.  1993.  Calabash-tree.  Fact Sheet ST-216, U. S. Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Glass Industry. 1959.  Container Glass.  The Glass Industry, 40(1):16-19.

Goodacre, Rob.  1995.  Hiram Codd’s Marble Bottle.  Bottles and Extras Magazine 7(7):28-29 (July 1995).  Very good article on the history of the Codd bottle including the manufacturing of the bottle itself.

Graci, David.  2003. H. H. Warner’s Design for a Bottle.  Bottles and More Magazine, Vol. 1(7), Lehighton, PA.

Griffenhagen, George B.  1969.  One Man’s Poison is Another Man’s Hobby. The Western Collector, 7(10):476-481(October 1969), San Francisco, CA.   One of the better articles on the subject of poison bottles.

Groff, Garth G.  2002.  Buffalo Beer of Sacramento: Early Brewing on the West Coast.  Internet webpage found at - http://www.people.virginia.edu/~ggg9y/buffalo.html

Guest, Gary.  2007.  A Short History of Cider.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 24(3):14-17 (July 2007).  Article discussing American cider (fermented apple juice) use and the bottles that contained the product in the 19th century.

Hagenbuch, James.  2005.  Not everything is what it seems.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 21(10):10-11 (February 2005).  Interesting article about the disparate ages of the mid-19th century “Corn for the World” figured flasks.

Ham, Bill.  2006.  John Moffat’s Phoenix Bitters.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 22(12):32-35 (April 2006).  Article that includes useful history of the Phoenix Bitters which was one of the most popular “bitters” of the mid-19th century.

Hawkins, Jay W.  2014.  Cylinder Whiskies of Pittsburgh.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 31(2):6-9 (June 2014).  Article on primarily the "Patent" style, tall cylinder liquor bottles which often are found with glass company names embossed on the base.

Hill, Sarah H.  1982.  An Examination of Manufacture – Deposition Lag for Glass Bottles from Late Historic Sites.  In book Archaeology of Urban America, The Search for Pattern and Process, edited by Roy S. Dickens, Jr., pp. 291-327.  Academic Press, New York

Hinson, Dave. 1995. The Early Fruit Jars of the Pacific and San Francisco Glass Works.  Bottles and Extras, July 1995,  Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors.

Hoenig, Russ, Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Les Jordan, Bill Lindsey and Phil Perry.  2008e.  The Dating Game - Berney-Bond Glass Company. Bottles and Extras 19(5*):33-42 (September/October 2008).  Covers the history and related maker’s markings for the Berney-Bond Glass Company (PA.).  This article is available on this website at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BerneyBond.pdf   (*Note: This issue was mistakenly numbered as 19(3) on the cover and 19(4) on the title page; it should actually be numbered as 19(5).)

Hoenig, Russ, Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Les Jordan, Bill Lindsey and Phil Perry.  2013.  Berney-Bond Glass Company.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published November 2013.  This article is an update of the article listed above (Hoenig et. al. 2008e).  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Berney-Bond.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers. 

Holscher, H. H.  1953 (reprinted in 1957 & 1961).  Feeding and Forming.  From  “Handbook of Glass Manufacture: A Book of Reference for the Plant Executive, Technologist, and Engineer”.  Complied and edited by Fay V. Tooley.  Ogden Publishing Co., New York., 299-387 in 1961 3rd edition.

Holscher, H. H. 1965. Hollow and Specialty Glass: Background and Challenge.  The Glass Industry, Vol. 46, June-November, Toledo, OH.

Howard, George E. 1950.  Glass Containers.  The Glass Industry, 31(4):183-190,214,216,218.  Excellent and quite detailed overview of the transition from hand (mouth-blown) process to mechanization in the container glass industry including very good descriptions of the various processes.

Hume, Ivor Noel.  1961.  The Glass Wine Bottle in Colonial Virginia.  Journal of Glass Studies, Vol. 3:90-117, Corning, NY.  A summary of the information of the information in this article is likely found in Hume (1991) although this article has not been reviewed by the website author.

Iwen, Marg.  2006.  Shield F – The Mark of Quality.  Bottles and Extras 17(1):13-26,72-75.  History of the Federal Glass Company, Columbus, OH.  Excellent overview also of glass making machinery and processes.

Jones, Olive R.  1971a.  Glass Bottle Push-Ups and Pontil Marks. Historical Archaeology 5:62-73.  Also found in the 1991 book Approaches to Material Culture: Research for Historical Archaeologists, pp. 87-98.  Society for Historical Archaeology, California & Pennsylvania.   This article is one of the best resources on the subject of push-ups and pontil marks and is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Jones1971.pdf

Jones, Olive R.  1971b.   Some Comments on the Newman Dating Key. Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 4(3):7-13.  A critique of 1970 Newman’s dating key by a leading expert in the field of historic bottle dating and identification.

Jones, Olive R.  1975    The Study of Glass Containers from Archaeological Sites.  Parks Canada Research Bulletin No. 22.  Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  Out of print.

Jones, Olive R.  1981.  Essence of Peppermint, a History of the Medicine and its Bottle.  Historical Archaeology 15(2):1-57.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Jones1981.pdf

Jones, Olive R.  1983a.    The Contribution of the Ricketts’ Mold to the Manufacture of the English "Wine" Bottle, 1820-1850. Journal of Glass Studies 25:167-77.

Jones, Olive R.  1983b.  London Mustard Bottles.  Historical Archaeology 17(1):69-84.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Jones1983.pdf

Jones, Olive R.  1993.  Commercial Foods, 1740-1820.  Historical Archaeology 27(2):25-41.  Interesting article on the early packaging of commercial food products in glass as well as other materials (i.e., wood, metal, ceramics, etc.).  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Jones1993.pdf

Kendrick, Grace. 1967.  About Old Bottles (regular column with information about mold air venting).  Western Collector 5(6):45 (June 1967), San Francisco, CA.

Krassner, Michael B.  1970.  Violin Scroll Flasks.  The Western Collector 8(9): 40-43 (September 1970), San Francisco, CA.

Lilienthal, Richard.  2003.  A Mystery in our Book Solved.  The Potomac Pontil June 2003 issue, pages 2-5.   Very informative article on the “slotted finish” type milk bottle and the Belle Pre Bottle Co. who made them.

Lindsey, Bill.  2009.  Rabbit Trails: The Twisted Path to Bottle Identification.  Bottles and Extras 20(3):38-44.  Article by the website author about the various researching “trails” one ends up following in the quest for bottle identification and history information.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/crystalsodaarticle.pdf

Lindsey, Bill.  2010.  The Finishing Touch: A Primer on Mouth-blown Bottle Finishing Methods.  Web published manuscript (this site).  Click on the link above to view/download this article (32 pages and full of illustrations). The author of this website has prepared a summary of the mouth-blown bottle finishing methods section on the Bottle Finishes & Closures page which is available as a downloadable and printable (pdf) article.  This copyrighted article is pending tentative publishing as part of a future Society for Historical Archaeology book on bottle and glass manufacturing but is being made available to users of this site as a free download.

Lockhart, Bill and Wanda Olszewski.  1994.  Excavation and Analysis of a Nineteenth Century Bottle Pit in San Elizario, Texas.  The Artifact, 32(1):29-49.

Lockhart, Bill.  2001d.  A New Twist Uncapping Old Information About Glass Artifacts.  In Jornada Mogollon Archaeology: Collected Papers from the Eleventh Jornada Mogollon Conference.  Edited by Patrick H. Beckett, pp. 101-117.  Coas Publishing and Research, Las Cruces.  This article also available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/A%20New%20Twist.htm

Lockhart, Bill.  2003.  Exploring the Chronology of Soft Drink Bottles from El Paso, Texas, Part 2: Embossed, Machine-Made Bottles from El Paso’s Three Largest Bottlers.  The Artifact 41:21-45.

Lockhart, Bill2004a.  The Dating Game: The AB Connected Mark.  Bottles and Extras 15(2):16-17.  This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ABConnectedMark_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2004b.  Knox Glass and the Marks Toulouse Missed. Bottles & Extras
15(1):62-63.  This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/KnoxGlas.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2004c.  The W F & Sons Companies. Unpublished manuscript.

Lockhart, Bill2004d.  The Dating Game: Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  Bottles and Extras 15(3):24-27.  This article also available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/OwensIll_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill2004e.  The Dating Game: Liberty Glass Co., Lamb Glass Co., and Updates.  Bottles and Extras 15(4):48-51.  This article available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/LibertyGlass_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill2004f (unpublished manuscript).  Samuel McKee & Co. and the Pennsylvania Glass Works.  Work in progress from the Bottle Research Group.

Lockhart, Bill.  2004g.  Liberty Glass, Lamb Glass, and Updates.  The Milk Route 287:1-3.  This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkRoute-V287.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2004h.  The L. G. CO. Mark (Again).  The Milk Route 290:2.  This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkRoute-V290.jpg

Lockhart,  Bill.  2004i.  An Annotated Bibliography of Manufacturers Marks.  Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) Newsletter, 37(4):10-13.  A useful listing and evaluation of many of the most important references dealing with bottle makers markings.  All of Bill's evaluations are included where appropriate on this References page.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Sources2.pdf

Lockhart, Bill2006a.  A Tale of Two Machines and A Revolution in Soft Drink Bottling.  Bottles and Extras 17(2):19-25.  Excellent article on the conversion of soda bottles from mouth-blown to machine production as well as several other subjects.  This article is available on this website at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/TaleofTwoMachines_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2006b. The Color Purple: Dating Solarized Amethyst Container Glass.  Historical Archaeology 40(2):45-56.  Best reference on the subject and available (for a fee) from the Society for Historical Archaeology at this link: http://www.sha.org/publications/pubsexplorer/default.cfm

Lockhart, Bill.  2007.  The Origins and Life of the Export Beer Bottle.  Bottles and Extras 18(3):49-57, 59.  This article is THE best source of information on this most common of beer bottle styles for the past 130+ years.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ExportBeerBottles_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2010a.  The Dating Game – In Pursuit of the Elusive Diamond G.  Bottles & Extras 21(2):56-60.  This is an article on the process used by the author for markers marking research using the Diamond G mark (General Glass Co. who were absorbed by Hocking Glass Co. in 1935).  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/DiamondG.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2010b.  The IPG Mark - Not Quite.  The Milk Route 356:3.  This is a very short discussion of a few West Coast makers marks found on earlier machine-made bottles.  This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/NotQuite.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2010c.  The Strange Case of the Aetna and Arsenal Glass Works.  Bottles & Extras 21(3):50-58.  A article that covers the noted glass companies and the relationship between them.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AetnaArsenalarticle.pdf

Important Note!

Beginning late 2012, additional bottle makers marking articles (including updates/revisions of older works) by the Bottle Research Group are being exclusively e-published on this website as part of the effort to complete the -

"ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MANUFACTURERS MARKS ON GLASS CONTAINERS"

Together, these works will comprise the noted Encyclopedia.  These will include brand new articles as well as updates/revisions of previously published articles. 

They are all listed and noted on this Reference Sources/Bibliography page with the following:

This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill.  2013a.  The Strange Case of the Aetna and Arsenal Glass Works. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2013.  This article is a revision and update of a previously published article (Lockhart 2010c) on the noted glass factories.   It is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AetnaArsenal.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill.  2013b.  The Glass Houses of Alfred Alexander. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published February  2013. This relatively short article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of several 19th to early 20th century English glass factories which made a few bottles for the U. S. market.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AlexanderCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill.  2013c.  A. G. Smalley & Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2013.  Article on the noted company and related ones which operated from the late 19th century until well in the 20th.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AGSmalley.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill.  2013d.  The Bodine Glass Companies. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December  2013.  Article on the noted mid-19th century company that specialized in producing early fruit jars.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Bodine.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill.  2014.  Frank O'Neill and the O'Neill Glass Machines. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published February 2014.  Another great article web published here exclusively! This article is about some significant late 19th to early 20th century, press-and-blow, semi and fully automatic machines that were eventually able to make narrow neck bottles as well as wide mouth bottles and jars.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ONeillmachines.pdf

Lockhart, Bill and Barry Bernas.  2013 .  The Anchor Glass Co., L. E. Smith Glass Company, and the Mystery of the Anchor Fruit Jar. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March  2013.  This article primarily covers the various companies associated with the Anchor Fruit Jar.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AnchorGlass.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill and Barry Bernas.  2014.  Turning Blue: Charles Blue and the Early Jar Machines.  In the "Guide to Collecting Fruit Jars: Fruit Jar Annual 2014" by Jerry McCann , pp. 19-47.  Privately published.  As noted in the articles introduction:  "Charles Edwin Blue created the first really successful jar and wide-mouth bottle machine. Between 1894 and 1912, Blue patented ten such machines, corresponding to the rise of the Atlas Glass Co. – from 1896 to 1902. This study examines the earliest machines – made by Blue and others – the manufacturing characteristics they left on jars, and ramifications applied to identifying early jars made by the Atlas Glass Co."  This article is available on this website at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/TheBLueMachine.pdf

Lockhart, Bill and Bill Porter.  2010.  The Dating Game: Tracking the Hobble-Skirt Coca-Cola Bottle.  Bottles & Extras 21(5):46-61.  Comprehensive article on the origins and history of this famous bottle.  This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/coca-cola.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Jim Sears and Bernard Schriever.  2013.  A. R. Samuel, The Philadelphia Jar Maker.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2013.  Article on the noted company and related ones which operated from the late 19th century through much of the 20th.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ARSamuel.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill and Harvey S. Teal (with contributions by Tod von Mechow).  2011.  The Dating Game: Will the Real AGCo. Please Stand Up and the ACCo. Sit Down?  Bottles and Extras 22(4):49-58.  Comprehensive article exploring the possibilities for the AGCo. mark and how it is mistakenly called the ACCo. mark.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BandE22-4.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey, and Carol Serr.  2004 (unpublished manuscript).  William McCully & Co.  Another work in progress by the Bottle Research group.  History of the grouping of companies owned/operated by McCully.

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, David Whitten, and Carol Serr.  2005a.  The Dating Game: The Illinois Glass Company. Bottles and Extras 16(1):54-60 (Winter 2005).  This article available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/IGCo_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey, and Carol Serr.  2005b.  The Dating Game: Cunningham Family Glass Holdings.  Bottles and Extras 16(3):14-20 (Summer 2005).  This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Cunningham_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey, Jay Hawkins, and Carol Serr.  2005c.  The Dating Game: The Ihmsen Glass Company.  Bottles and Extras 16(2):26-31,39 (Spring 2005).  Also covers the Cunningham family as well as the Ihmsen glass makers.  This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BLockhart_Ihmsen.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Michael Miller, Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, and David Whitten.  2005d.  The Dating Game: Illinois Pacific – A Division of the Illinois Glass Company.  Bottles and Extras 16(4):73-80 (Fall 2005).  Comprehensive history of the Illinois Pacific Glass Co. including products and makers marks.  This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/IGPCO_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, David Whitten and Carol Serr.  2005e.  Debunking the Myth of the Side Seam Thermometer.  Bottles and Extras 16(4):14-15,41 (Fall 2005).  Article correcting the myth that bottles can be dated via the height of a bottle mold side seam.   This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Thermometer_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill and David Whitten.  2006a.  The Dating Game: The F H G W Mark.  Bottles and Extras 17(1):36-43,64 (Winter 2006).  Includes updated information on the I. G. Co. This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BLockhart_FHGW.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey, and Pete Schulz.  2006b.  The Dating Game: Whitall Tatum & Co.  Bottles and Extras 17(2):57-69 (Summer 2006).  Very in-depth article on one of the larger bottle making concerns in the U. S.; especially known for druggist bottles.  This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/WTandCo_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey, and Carol Serr.  2006c.  The Dating Game: Tracking the Elusive Monogram – Carl Conrad & Co., Olean Glass Works (Co.), and a Man Named O’Hara.  Bottles and Extras 17(4):38-47 (Fall 2006).  Comprehensive article about the C. Conrad & Co. “Original Budweiser” bottles and much more.  This article available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/OleanConrad_Blockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz,  Carol Serr, Bill Lindsey, and David Whitten.  2007a.  The Dating Game: The American Bottle Co., A Study of Contracts and Contradictions.  Bottles and Extras 18(1):47-58 (January/February 2007).  Very comprehensive article about the history of the American Bottle Company, including makers marks. This article also available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/American_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz,  Carol Serr, Bill Lindsey, and David Whitten.  2007b. The Dating Game: The Distinctive marks of the Charles Boldt Glass Co.  Bottles and Extras 18(2):50-53 (March/April 2007).  Very comprehensive article about the history of the Charles Boldt Glass Co., including makers marks.  This article also available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BoldtGlassCo_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz,  Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2007c. The Dating Game: Thatcher Glass Mfg. Co.  Bottles and Extras 18(4):53-65 (July/August 2007).  Very comprehensive article about the history of the Thatcher Glass Co., including makers marks.  This article also available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Thatcher_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2007d. The Dating Game: De Steiger Glass Co.  Bottles and Extras 18(5):31-37 (September/October 2007).  Comprehensive article about the history of the De Steiger Glass Co., including makers marks.  This article also available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/DeSteiger_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2007e. The Dating Game:  The C. L. Flaccus Glass Co. Bottles and Extras 18(6):40-43,65 (November/December 2007). History of the C. L. Flaccus Glass Company and related Flaccus endeavors.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CLFlaccusGlassCo_BRG.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2008a. The Dating Game: Hermann Heye Glasfabrik. Bottles and Extras 19(1):57-59, 62 (January/February 2008).  Covers the history of a major German glass company which was a large exporter of bottles to the U. S.   This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/HermannHeyeGlasfabrik_BRG.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Jay Hawkins, and Bill Lindsey.  2008b. The Dating Game: William Frank & Sons, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1866-1875). Bottles and Extras 19(2):32-36 (March/April 2008).  Covers the history of William Frank & Sons and the related maker's markings.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/WmFrankandSons_BRG.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2008c. The Knox Glass Bottle Co. Bottles and Extras 19(3):54-63 (May/June 2008).  Covers the history of the Knox Glass Bottle Co. and an update to an earlier article (Lockhart 2004) on the subject.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Knox2_BRG.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2008d. The Kearns Glass Companies. Bottles and Extras 19(4):50-58 (July/August 2008).  Covers the history - and related maker’s markings - of the various Kearns Glass Companies in Zanesville, OH. (primarily).  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/KearnsGlassCo_BLockhart.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2008e.  Milk Bottle Production at the Knox Glass Bottle Co. The Milk Route Vol. 335 (September 2008).  Covers the history of milk bottle production at the noted glass manufacturer; it has a different perspective than the other Knox article (Lockhart et al. 2008c) noted above.  This article is available on this site at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Knox-TMR2008.pdf  

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, David Whitten, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2009a. The Dating Game – Marks Used by the Mississippi and Lindell Glass Companies.  Bottles and Extras 20(1):34-43, 56-58 (January/February 2009).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted related glass companies.  The article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/mississippi-lindell.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey with Michael R. Miller and David Whitten.  2009b.  The Dating Game – Southern Glass Co.  Bottles and Extras 20(6):50-61 (November/December 2009).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted glass company.  The article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/southernglass.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2010a. The Dating Game – The Owens Bottle Co.  Bottles and Extras 21(1):50-62 (January/February 2010).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted glass company.  The article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/owensbottlecompany.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2010b. The DuBois Glass Co.  The Milk Route Vol. 352 (February 2010).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted glass company which produced primarily milk bottles during the early 20th century.  The article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/DBGCo.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2010c.  The Adolphus Busch Glass Factories.  Bottles and Extras 21(5):45-52 (November/December 2010).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted glass company.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AdolphusBusch.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Al Morin, and others.  2010d.  The Mysterious Numbering System. The Milk Route #359:1-4 (September 2010).  An article covering the strange number system noted on early to mid-20th century glass milk bottles.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Numbering-L.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2011a.  The Dating Game: Reed & Co. and the Massillon Glass Works: R&Co - MGW - M.  Bottles and Extras 22(2):49-60 (March/April 2011).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted glass company.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BandE22-2.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever, and Bill Lindsey.  2011b.  Blake-Hart: The Square Milk Bottle. The Milk Route - Part I (#369:1-3 [July 2011]) & Part II (#370:1-3 [August 2011]).  Article on the first successful purveyor of square milk bottles in the 1920s.  (Blake-Hart invented and sold these milk bottles but did not make them as they were produced by other bottle/glass making companies) of square milk bottles.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BlakeHart2011.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2012a.  American Glass Works, Ltd. and American Glass Works, Pittsburgh.  Bottles and Extras 23(1):52-58 (January/February 2012).  This article outlines the history - and related markings - of these two glass companies which used very similar markings.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BandE23-1.pdf

Important Note!

Beginning late 2012, additional bottle makers marking articles (including updates/revisions of older works) by the Bottle Research Group are being exclusively e-published on this website as part of the effort to complete the -

"ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MANUFACTURERS MARKS ON GLASS CONTAINERS"

Together, these works will comprise the noted Encyclopedia.  These will include brand new articles as well as updates/revisions of previously published articles. 

They are all listed and noted on this Reference Sources/Bibliography page with the following:

This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Bill Lindsey, and Beau Schriever.  2012b.  Acme Glass Company and the Acme Logos.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published September 2012.  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of this largely 20th century company and an array of related prior (19th century) companies.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AcmeGlass.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever and Bill Lindsey.  2013a.  American Glass Works - Richmond and Paden City.  Bottles and Extras 24(1):13-15, 58-62 (January/February 2013).  This article outlines the history - and related markings - of these glass companies which had the same name and sometimes markings as those in the article above.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BandE24-1.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey, and Carol Serr, .  2013b.  The John Adams Companies.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2013.  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of several related Pittsburgh, PA. glass companies in the 19th century.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AdamsCo.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013c.  The Adolphus Busch Glass Factories. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2013.  This article is a revision and update of a previously published article (Lockhart et al. 2010c) on the noted glass factories.   This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pddfiles/AdolphusBusch2.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Barry Bernas, Harvey Teal, Tod von Mechow, Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, and Beau Schriever.  2013d.  The A. G. Co. Logo.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2013.  This article covers the assortment of companies that did - or could have - used the noted logo.  It is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AGCo.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever and Bill Lindsey.  2013e.  The John Agnew Companies. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published February 2013.   This article covers the various companies associated with or controlled by John Agnew in the 19th century.  It is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Agnew.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever and Bill Lindsey (with contributions by Ken Farnsworth, Jay Hawkins and Tod von Mechow).  2013f.  The Glass Factories and Bottles of Alexander and David H. Chambers. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2013.   This article covers the various companies associated with or controlled by the Chambers family in the 19th century.  It is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/A&DHChambers.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, David Whitten and Beau Schriever.  2013g.  The American Bottle Co.: A Study in Contrasts and Contradictions. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2013.  This article is a revision and update of a previously published article (Lockhart et al. 2007a) on the noted glass factory and its precursors.   This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AmericanBottleCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey with contributions by Jay Hawkins.  2013h.  American Glass Works, Ltd. and American Glass Works, Pittsburgh.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2013.  This article is a revision and update of a previously published article (Lockhart et al. 2012a) on the noted glass factory and its precursors.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AmGWPittsburgh.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2013i.  Armstrong Cork Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2013.  Article on the assortment of largely (but not exclusively)  20th century companies that resulted in the Armstrong Cork Co.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ArmstrongCork.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey with contributions by Jay Hawkins.  2013j.  Alexander Arbogast.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2013.  Article on the assortment of largely 19th century entities that produced bottles and other glass as well as developed and patented critical processes and machinery related to bottle making.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Arbogast.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever and Bill Lindsey.  2013k.  American Glass Works - Richmond and Paden City.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2013.  This article is a revision and update of a previously published article (Lockhart et al. 2013a) on the noted glass factories and precursors.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AmGWRichmond.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr, .  2013l.  Anchor-Hocking Glass Corp.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2013.  Article on the assortment of largely 20th century companies that resulted in the Anchor-Hocking Glass Corporation.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AnchorHocking.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever and Carol Serr, .  2013m.  Atlantic Bottle Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2013.  Article on the  20th century companies that resulted in the Atlantic Bottle Company.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Atlantic.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever and Carol Serr, .  2013n.  The Atterbury Glass Houses. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2013.  Article on the 19th and early 20th century Pittsburgh companies connected with the Atterbury Brothers.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Atterbury.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey, and Carol Serr with contributions from Tom Caniff.  2013o.  A. M. Foster & Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published May 2013.  Article on the various related glass companies operating over a wide span of time in the 19th and 20th century operated by the Foster's with various connections to other glassmakers including Thomas Sheldon and Charles Dean.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AMFoster.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey .  2013p.  Arthur, Burnham & Gilroy: A Study of Unlikely Relationships in Early Fruit Jars.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August 2013.  Article on the assortment of interesting mid-19th century companies that largely produced fruit/canning jars.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ArthurBurnham&Gilroy.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever and Carol Serr, .  2013q.  Other "A" Marks. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August 2013.  "Catch-all" article on an array of bottle markings - some makers marks, most not - from the 19th and 20th centuries.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AOther.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey .  2013r.  Bagley & Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published September 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this late 19th &  20th century English glass maker whose wares are commonly encountered in North America.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Bagley&Co.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr .  2013s.  The Baker Brothers and the Baltimore Glass Works.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published September 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this complex of related early 19th to early 20th century glass makers.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BakerBros.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever and Bill Lindsey .  2013t.  Baker & Cutting and the Firms of Francis Cutting.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published September 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this mid 19th century Western American glass maker whose wares are sometimes encountered on Western American historic sites.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Baker&Cutting.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey (with contributions by Jim Sears).  2013u.  Ball Brothers Glass Mfg. Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published October 2013.  Article on the history, bottles/jars, and makers markings of this well known late 19th through the entire 20th century glass maker.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BallBros.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013v.  From Premium Glass Co. to Bartlett-Collins.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published October 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this complex of related 20th century glass makers.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BartlettCollins.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013w.  Beck, Phillips - The Bakewells - and the Brunswick Pharmacal Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published October 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this complex of related companies that spanned the 19th and 20th centuries.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Beck&Bakewell.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013x.  Bellaire Bottle Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published November 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this late 19th to early 20th century bottle/glass company.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Bellaire.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013y.  Bell Pre Bottle Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published November 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this early 20th century bottle/glass maker.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BellePre.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013z.  Belleville Glass Company.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published November 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this late 19th century bottle/glass making company that was in business a short time in the 1880s but produced a lot of different bottles and jars.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BellevilleGlassCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, Bill Lindsey and David Whitten.  2013aa.  B. F. G. Co. Logos.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of several glass companies that used the B. F. G. Co. logo on a wide variety of bottles and jars from the mid-19th to mid-20th centuries.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BFGCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, David Whitten, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever, and Bill Lindsey.  2013bb.  Binghamton Glass Co. and BGCo on a Crown-Finished Bottle.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this late 19th to early 20th century glass company.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BinghamtonGCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever, and Bill Lindsey.  2013cc.  Blake-Hart: The Square Milk Bottle.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this early 20th century company (though not a glass maker) responsible for one of the first square milk bottles in the U. S.  (This is an update/revision of Lockhart 2011b.)  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Blake-Hart.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever, and Bill Lindsey.  2013dd.  The Blanke Companies - Jobbers in Milk Bottles.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this early 20th century company which, though not a glass maker, was a jobber (seller) of milk bottles and other dairy supplies.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Blanke&Hauk.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2013ee.  Brockway Machine Bottle Co. and Brockway Glass Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this 20th century company which operated most of the century.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Brockway.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2013ff.  Buck Glass Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this 20th century company which operated during the first half of the century.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BuckGlass.pdf  This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2013gg.  Burgin & Sons.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of several related companies that spanned the entire 19th century.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Burgin&Sons.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2013hh.  Butler Bottle Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this company which operated from the late 19th to early 20th century.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Butler.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014a.  Other "B" Marks. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2014.  "Catch-all" article on an array of bottle markings - some makers marks, most not - from the 19th and 20th centuries.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BOther.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Tod von Mechow, Beau Schriever, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr 2014b.  William Painter's Baltimore Loop Seal.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2014.  This article is web published here for users exclusively!  It is about this late 19th century (but used into the 1910s) closure type used for beer and soda bottling and invented by William Painter, who went on to much bigger fame as the originator of the crown cap closure and finish.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BaltimoreLoopSealarticle.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey (with contributions by Albert Morin and Barry Bernas).  2014c.  C. L. Flaccus Glass Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2014.  (Note: This is an update of Lockhart et al. 2007e.)  Article on the history, bottles/jars, and makers markings of this company which operated from the late 19th century to early 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CLFlaccus.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014d.  The California Glass Co. of Pennsylvania. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2014.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this company which operated from the late 19th century to early 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CaliforniaGlassCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014e.  California Glass Insulator Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2014.  Article on the history, bottles/jars/insulators and makers markings of this company which operated in the early 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CaliforniaGlassInsulatorCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014f.  Camden Glass Works. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2014.  Article on the history, bottles/jars and makers markings of this company which operated in the late 19th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Camden.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014g.  Cannington, Shaw & Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2014.  Article on the history, bottles/jars and makers markings of this English company which operated in the late 19th to early 20th centuries and whose products are often found on historic sites in the United States. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CS&Co.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever and Bill Lindsey.  2014h.  Canton Glass Co. and the Cambridge Glass Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2014.  Article on the history, jars (and tableware) and makers markings of these companies which operated from the latter portion of the 19th to at least mid-20th centuries. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Canton.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2014i.  Cape May Glass Co., Star Glass Works, and John S. Alston. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2014.  Article on the history, jars, bottles and makers markings of these companies which operated from the very late 19th century into the first few decades of the 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CapeMay-Alston.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Barry Bernas, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2014j.  Capstan Glass Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2014.  Article on the history, jars, bottles, tableware and makers markings of this company which operated through most of the 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CapstanGlassCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2014k.  Carl Conrad & Co. - The Original American Budweiser. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2014.  Article on the history and bottles used by this 19th century national beer producer/distributor and the early days of Anheuser-Busch Co.  (Note: This is an update of Lockhart et al. 2006c.)  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CarlConradCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Harvey S. Teal, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2014l.  Carolina Glass Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this company which operated during the early 20th century.  (Also includes some interesting history on the South Carolina Dispensary.)  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CarolinaGlassCo.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2014m.  Carr-Lowrey Glass Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published April 2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this company (and predecessors) which operated from the late 19th century through most of the 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CarrLowreyGlassCo.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2014n.  Chase Valley Glass Co. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published May 2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this very short-lived company which operated from in the early 1880s. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ChaseValleyGlass.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2014o.  The Ashley Semiautomatic Bottle Machine.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2014.  Yet another great article web published here exclusively! This article is about what was most likely the first narrow mouth, press-and-blow, bottle producing machines originating during the very late 19th to early 20th centuries.  These were nicknamed the "Johnny Bull" machines.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AshleyMachines.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2014p.  Chattanooga Glass Company.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this southern bottle and glass making company that operated during much of the 20th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ChattanoogaGlass.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey (with contributions by David Whitten).  2014q.  Chicago Glass Mfg. Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this bottle and glass making company that operated for a relatively short time in the late 19th century. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ChicagoGlassMfg.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey (with contributions by Al Morin).  2014r.  Chicago Heights Bottle Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this bottle and glass making company that operated for a very short time during the early 1910s.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ChicagoHeights.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014s.  Clyde Glass Works.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this New York bottle/glass making company that operated for almost a century ending in the early 1900s.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ClydeGW.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr .  2014t.  Companies Owned by the Coffin Family.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this New Jersey  bottle/glass making companies that operated for much of the 19th century.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Coffin.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey (with contributions by Tod von Mechow).  2014u.  The Cohansey Companies.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of these New Jersey bottle/glass making companies that operated during the last third of the 19th into the early 20th century.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Cohansey.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2014v.  A Marked Coincidence: The C. C. G. Co. Logo of the Colorado City Glass Co. and Cream City Glass Co., Part 2: Cream City Glass Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this late 19th century Wisconsin bottle/glass making company who shared the same makers marking with a Colorado bottle maker during the same time frame.  A very interesting story of bottle mark sleuthing!  (See also Schriever et al. 2014 below.)  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CreamCity.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Lorrain, Dessamae.  1968.  An Archaeologist Guide to Nineteenth Century American Glass.  Historical Archaeology, 2:35-44.  Useful, though outdated, article on general bottle manufacturing and dating features.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Lorrain1968.pdf 

Lunn, Kevin.  1981. Identification and Dating of Lea and Perrins’ Worcestershire Sauce Bottles on Canadian Historic Sites: Interpretations Past and Present.  Canadian Journal of Archaeology, No. 5, 1981.  This article covers what the title implies, with  information about the differences in bottles in Canada versus the U. S.

McDougall, Dennis P. 1990.  The Bottles of the Hoff Store Site. In “The Hoff Store Site and Gold Rush Merchandise from San Francisco, California” publication edited by Allen G. Pastron and Eugene M. Hattori, pp. 58-74. Society for American Archaeology, Special Publication Series, Number 7.  Very interesting publication that gives a snapshot view of the bottles found in a store known to have been destroyed in the famous May 1851 conflagration in San Francisco, CA.  This work helps establish some dating parameters for pontil scars and the use of snap case tools.  This entire publication is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/hoffstore.pdf

McGuire, Eric and Warren Friedrich.  2010.  Louis Lacour.  Bottles and Extras 21(3):28-36 (May/June 2010).  Excellently researched article about the Louis Lacour of Lacour's Bitters fame (a San Francisco, CA. produced bottle).

Meigh, Edward.  1960.  The Development of the Automatic Glass Bottle Machine: A Story of Some Pioneers.  Glass Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Feb.), pp. 25-50.  According to Miller & Sullivan (1981) this article is a good overview on the development period of the automatic bottle machines.

Miller, George L. et al.  2000. Telling Time for Archaeologist.  In Northeast Historical Archaeology, Vol. 29, pp. 1-22.

Miller, George L. and Tony McNichol.    2002 (revised March 2010 with illustrations).  Dates for Suction Scarred Bottoms: Chronological Changes in Owens Machine-Made Bottles.  Paper presented at the 2002 SHA meetings, Mobile, Alabama.   Exceptional reference about bottles made by the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine.

Miller, George L. and Ed Morin.  2004.  A Household Cleanup Assemblage from Ca. 1938-1941, Raritan Landing, New Jersey, site 28Mil78: Feature 8, the well.  Unpublished notes from Miller & Morin dated June 14, 2004.  These notes have a good overview, among other things, of machine manufacturing technology and bottle standardization.

Miller, George L. and Antony Pacey.  1985.  Impact of Mechanization in the Glass Container Industry: The Dominion Glass Company of Montreal, a Case Study.  Historical Archaeology 19(1):38-50.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MillerPacey1985.pdf

Miller, George L. and Catherine Sullivan.  1984.  Machine-made Glass Containers and the End of Production for Mouth-Blown Bottles.  Historical Archaeology 18(2):83-96.  (Same as Parks Canada Research Bulletin #171 (1981) and also found in the book Approaches to Material Culture: Research for Historical Archaeologists, pp. 99-112.  (1991) Society for Historical Archaeology, California & Pennsylvania.)  Excellent overview on the era when machines began to dominate bottle production in the early 20th century.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology and Parks Canada at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MillerSullivan1984.pdf

Moss, Dewey.  1967.  Jamaica Gingers.  Western Collector 5(5):37-39 (May 1967).  This article is also reiterated in the Munsey article below on the subject.

Moss, Dewey.  1968.  Florida Waters.  Western Collector 6(8):39-42 (August 1968).  A good overview of this distinctive bottles style although Sullivan (1994) is much more comprehensive.

Munsey, Cecil.  2006.  Paralysis in a Bottle (The “Jake Walk” Story).  Bottles and Extras 17(1):7-12 (Winter 2006).   Very interesting article on Jamaica Ginger and the bottles that held it.

Munsey, Cecil.  2010.  Vapo-Cresoline 1881-1950.  Web-published article that is available on the authors website - http://www.CecilMunsey.com - and, courtesy of Dr. Munsey, available on this website at the following link:  Vapo-Cresoline 1881-1950 by Dr. Cecil Munsey

Munsey, Cecil.  2013a.  Hayner Distilling Company (1866-1920) - giant mail-order whiskey firm.  Web-published article on http://www.CecilMunsey.com  Article on the history behind these ubiquitous liquor bottles from the late 19th to early 20th century.  This article is also available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MunseyHaynerDistilling.pdf

Munsey, Cecil.  2013b.  Casper's Whiskey - "Made by Honest North Carolina People".  Web-published article on http://www.CecilMunsey.com  Article on these distinctive cobalt blue liquor bottles from the late 19th to early 20th centuries and the history behind them.  This article is also available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Munseycasperswhiskeyarticle.pdf

Munsey, Cecil.  2013c.  Anheuser Busch's David Nicholson's Liquid Bread.  Web-published article on http://www.CecilMunsey.com  Article on these distinctive cobalt blue export beer bottles and the history behind the product itself.  This article is also available on this website at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/LiquidBreadMunsey.pdf

National Glass Budget. 1910b. Another New Bottle Machine.  National Glass Budget 25(45):2.  A note in this trade magazine about a semi-automatic machine that could produce narrow bore bottles via a press-and-blow machine.

Newman, T. Stell.  1970.  A Dating Key for Post-Eighteenth Century Bottles.  Historical Archaeology, 4:70-75.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Newman1970.pdf

Noordsy, Jeff.  2003.  Pitkin Flasks.  Bottles and More magazine, Vol. 1(8), p. 12-13, Lehighton, PA.  Collector article which includes a good description of the German half-post manufacturing process.

Oppelt, Ted.  2003.  Colored Hutchinson Sodas in the United States.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector Vol. 20(4):10-13 (August 2003).  Overview on the subject of non-aqua or colorless glass Hutchinson sodas.

Orser, Charles E., Jr. and David W. Babson. 1990.  Tabasco Brand Pepper Sauce Bottles from Avery Island, Louisiana. Historical Archaeology 24(3):107-114).  Interesting and useful overview of the bottles made for and used by this famous company.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/OrserBabson1990.pdf

Pearson, B. M.  1928.  Aspects of Bottle Machine Operations.  The Glass Industry 9(7):145-148.  Interesting information on the different types of machines (press-and-blow, blow-and-blow) at the time as well as feeder machines that made semi-automatic machines into fully automatic.

Plavchan, Ronald J.  1976.  A History of Anheuser-Busch 1852-1933.  From the book Companies and Men: Business Enterprise in America, Arno Press, New York, N.Y.

Preston, Robin R.  Random Shots.  Bottles and Extras 17(4):58-61 (Fall 2006).  Article on pre-Prohibition shot glasses.

Rock, Jim.  2001.  Lea and Perrins Worcestershire Sauce Bottles.  In Reference Manual and Study Guide for the CDF-CLFA Archaeological Training Program for Registered Professional Foresters and Other Resource Professionals. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) and the California Licensed Foresters Association (CLFA).  Volume 1, page 611.  (Write-up based on a Kevin Lunn article in Canadian Journal of Archaeology noted above.)

Sandelin, Linda C.  2001.  Clorox Bottles: A Key to Their Identification and Date of Manufacture.  In Reference Manual and Study Guide for the CDF-CLFA Archaeological Training Program for Registered Professional Foresters and Other Resource Professionals. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) and the California Licensed Foresters Association (CLFA).  Volume 1, pp. 612-613.  (Note:  Excellent dating and historical information for Clorox bottles is also found on the internet on the Clorox Corporate site: http://www.thecloroxcompany.com/company/history/bottleguide/index.html.  This site also includes excellent pictures of the different styles of Clorox bottles over time.  Sandelin’s article references the Clorox Company as a primary source – probably the same information that is found now on-line.)

Schreiver, Beau, Lockhart, Bill, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey.  2014.  A Marked Coincidence: The C. C. G. Co. Logo of the Colorado City Glass Co. and Cream City Glass Co., Part 1: Colorado City Glass Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August  2014.  Article on the history, bottles and makers markings of this late 19th century Colorado bottle/glass making company who shared the same makers marking with a Wisconsin bottle maker during the same time frame.  A very interesting story of bottle mark sleuthing!  (See also Lockhart et al. 2014v above.)  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ColoradoCityGlass.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Schulz, Peter D., Bill Lockhart, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2009.  Rim Codes: A Pacific Coast Dating System for Milk Bottles.  Historical Archaeology 43(2):30-39.  Article on the dating of West Coast produced milk bottles from the 1920s and early 1930s via embossed numbers on the bottle finish rim.  This article is available on this website at the following link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/rimcodesarticle.pdf

Schulz, Peter, Bill Lockhart, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2010.  William Walton, the Whiteman Brothers, and the Warren Glass Works.  Bottles and Extras 21(4):46-61 (July/August 2010).  This article outlines the history - and related maker’s markings - of the noted glass companies.  The article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Waltonwhitemanwarren.jpg

Schultz, Peter, Bill Lockhart, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey.  2013.  Bell Bottle Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published November 2013.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this early 20th century company that specialized in milk bottles.  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BellBottle.pdf   This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Schultz, Peter, Bill Lockhart, Carol Serr, Bill Lindsey, and Beau Schriever (with contributions by David Whitten).  2014.  Charles Boldt Glass Co.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published May 2014.  Article on the history, bottles, and makers markings of this largely early 20th century glass company.  (Note: This article is an update of Lockhart, et al.  2007b listed earlier.)  This article is available on this website at:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CharlesBoldt.pdf    This article is part of the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers.

Shafer, James F. II. 1969.  New Insights on “Free-Blown” Bottles.  The Western Collector 7(6):282-286 (June 1969), San Francisco, CA.

Sives, Kevin.  1992.  A Bottle Collecting Glossary.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector, 8(12): 8-10 (April 1992).  A short but useful glossary of bottle terms including finishes, closures, and other attributes by category, with references.

Smith, Mark.  2003.  Beginnings of a Flask Collector.  Bottles and More Magazine, Vol. 1(11) (July 2003), p. 25-29, Lehighton, PA.  Article which includes interesting collector observations about manufacturing based diagnostic features on liquor flasks that are pertinent to most bottles.

Staski, Edward.  1991.  Just What Can a 19th Century Bottle Tell Us?  In Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, compiled by George Miller, Olive Jones, Lester Ross, Teresita Majewski, pp. 127-140.  Society for Historical Archaeology.  (Also in Historical Archaeology 18(1):38-51.)  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Staski1984.pdf

Sullivan, Catherine.  1994.  Searching for Nineteenth-Century Florida Water Bottles.  Historical Archaeology 28(1):78-98.  Excellent article on the subject which notes that the product was originally for medicinal purposes also.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/sullivanfloridawater1994.pdf

Toulouse, Julian.  1966. Whittled Molds.  The Western Collector 4(10) (October 1966), San Francisco, CA.   Excellent discussion on the physical origins of the “whittled” appearance on bottles – machine-made and mouth-blown.

Toulouse, Julian.  1967. When Did Hand Bottle Blowing Stop?  The Western Collector 5(8):41-45 (August 1967), San Francisco, CA.  Excellent history of the transition from hand blowing to semi-automatic machines, to fully automatic machines.

Toulouse, Julian. 1968  Empontilling: A History.  The Glass Industry, Part 1 March 1968, Part II (Conclusion) – April 1968.  One of the best overviews of different styles of pontil marks and snap case (sabot) tools.

Toulouse, Julian.  1968b. San Francisco Bottle Makers.  The Western Collector 6(10):35-41 (June 1968), San Francisco, CA.

Toulouse, Julian.  1969b.  A Primer on Mold Seams.  The Western Collector, Part 1 - Vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 526-35; Part 2 - Vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 578-87, (Nov. & Dec. 1969), San Francisco, CA.  Exceptional work on bottle diagnostic features based on production related methods and materials.  These articles are available on this website – courtesy of Dr. Cecil Munsey (Thanks!) - at the following URL: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/moldseams.pdf

Toulouse, Julian.  1970a.  High on the Hawg, or How the Western Miner Lived, as told by the Bottles he left behind.  Historical Archaeology 4:59-69.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Toulouse1970.pdf

Toulouse, Julian.  1970b.  The Bottle Makers of the Pacific Northwest.  The Western Collector, Vol. 8, nos. 7 & 8, (July/August 1970), San Diego, CA.

Vermeulen, Peter.  2000.  Melchers.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 16(10):34-37 (February 2000).  Good article on the various Melchers liquor companies (Schiedam, Netherlands) and the gin bottles they produced which were shipped throughout the world from before the mid-19th century until beyond the mid-20th century.

von Mechow, Tod.  2006.  Dyottville Porter Bottles.  Antique Bottle & Glass Collector 23(1):10-16 (May 2006).  Good article on plate mold porter bottles made by Dyottville Glass Works, concentrating on those made in the 1850s and 1860s.

White, John R.  1978.  Bottle Nomenclature: A Glossary of Landmark Terminology for the Archaeologist.  Historical Archaeology 12:58-67.  The definitions used in this article are widely accepted by archaeologists.  Though not all of the terminology is used in this website, many of the definitions were directly quoted in the Glossary page.  This article is now available as a pdf file compliments of the Society for Historical Archaeology at this URL:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/White1978.pdf

Wilberger, Jim.  2011.  The Buffalo Girls of Mecklenburg County, Virginia.  Bottles and Extras, Vol. 22(6):29-35 (November-December 2011).  Article on Buffalo Lithia Springs and the distinctive large bottles the water was distributed in.

Wilson, Rex. (date unknown)  A Classification System for 19th Century Bottles.  Arizoniana 2(4):2-6.

Whitten, David.  2005a.  Louisville Glass Factories of the 19th Century – Part 1.  Bottles and Extras Spring 2005, Vol. 16(2):45-49.  This article is also linked on this website at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/LouisvilleGlass1_Whitten.pdf

Whitten, David.  2005b.  Louisville Glass Factories of the 19th Century – Part 2.  Bottles and Extras Summer 2005, Vol. 16(3):70-73.  This article is also available on this website at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/LouisvilleGlass2_Whitten.pdf

Whitten, David.  2005c.  Louisville Glass Factories of the 19th Century – Part 3.  Bottles and Extras Fall 2005, Vol. 16(4).  This article is also available on this website at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/LouisvilleGlass3_DWhitten.pdf

 


SEARCHING THIS WEBSITE:  To do a word/phrase search of this website one must use the "Search SHA" boxes found on many of the main SHA web pages, including the Research Resources page (upper right side of that page) which links to this site.  The Historic Bottle Website (HBW) has no internal search mechanism so be aware that when running a search one will also get non-HBW response links to other portions of the SHA site.

8/2/2014

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Bill Lindsey
Bureau of Land Management (retired) -
Klamath Falls, Oregon
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